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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
 
 
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended:         
December 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number:          1-38962
Fiserv, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Wisconsin
 
39-1506125
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I. R. S. Employer
Identification No.)
255 Fiserv Drive
Brookfield,
WI
53045
(Address of Principal Executive Offices and zip code)
(262) 879-5000
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
FISV
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
0.375% Senior Notes due 2023
 
FISV23
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
1.125% Senior Notes due 2027
 
FISV27
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
1.625% Senior Notes due 2030
 
FISV30
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
2.250% Senior Notes due 2025
 
FISV25
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
3.000% Senior Notes due 2031
 
FISV31
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:            None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
Emerging growth company




If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates as of June 28, 2019 (the last trading day of the second fiscal quarter) was $35,699,320,202 based on the closing price of the registrant’s common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on that date. The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding at February 21, 2020 was 679,098,783.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III of this report incorporates information by reference to the registrant’s proxy statement for its 2020 annual meeting of shareholders, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the close of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page    
PART I
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
 
Item 1B.
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
 
 
Item 6.
 
 
 
Item 7.
 
 
 
Item 7A.
 
 
 
Item 8.
 
 
 
Item 9.
 
 
 
Item 9A.
 
 
 
Item 9B.
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
 
 
 
Item 11.
 
 
 
Item 12.
 
 
 
Item 13.
 
 
 
Item 14.
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
 
Item 16.
 
 
 
 

i


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” intended to qualify for the safe harbor from liability established by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include those that express a plan, belief, expectation, estimation, anticipation, intent, contingency, future development or similar expression, and can generally be identified as forward-looking because they include words such as “believes,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “could,” “should” or words of similar meaning. Statements that describe our future plans, objectives or goals are also forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements in this report involve significant risks and uncertainties, and a number of factors, both foreseen and unforeseen, could cause actual results to differ materially from our current expectations. The factors that may affect our results include, among others: the possibility that we may be unable to achieve expected synergies and operating efficiencies from the acquisition of First Data Corporation (“First Data”) within the expected time frames or at all or to successfully integrate the operations of First Data into our operations; such integration may be more difficult, time-consuming or costly than expected; profitability following the transaction may be lower than expected, including due to unexpected costs, charges or expenses resulting from the transaction; operating costs, customer loss and business disruption (including, without limitation, difficulties in maintaining relationships with employees, customers, clients or suppliers) may be greater than expected following the transaction; unforeseen risks relating to our liabilities or those of First Data may exist; our ability to meet expectations regarding the accounting and tax treatments of the transaction; our ability to compete effectively against new and existing competitors and to continue to introduce competitive new products and services on a timely, cost-effective basis; changes in customer demand for our products and services; the ability of our technology to keep pace with a rapidly evolving marketplace; the successful management of our merchant alliance program which involves several alliances not under our sole control; the impact of a security breach or operational failure on our business including disruptions caused by other participants in the global financial system; the failure of our vendors and merchants to satisfy their obligations; the successful management of credit and fraud risks in our business and merchant alliances; changes in local, regional, national and international economic or political conditions and the impact they may have on us and our customers; the effect of proposed and enacted legislative and regulatory actions affecting us or the financial services industry as a whole; our ability to comply with government regulations and applicable card association and network rules; the protection and validity of intellectual property rights; the outcome of pending and future litigation and governmental proceedings; our ability to successfully identify, complete and integrate acquisitions, and to realize the anticipated benefits associated with the same; the impact of our strategic initiatives; our ability to attract and retain key personnel; changes in the interest rate environment that increase interest on our borrowings or the interest rate at which we can refinance our borrowings; adverse impacts from currency exchange rates or currency controls; and other factors identified in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and in other documents that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. You should consider these factors carefully in evaluating forward-looking statements and are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such statements, which speak only as of the date of this report. We undertake no obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this report. We are not including the information provided on the websites referenced herein as part of, or incorporating such information by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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PART I
In this report, all references to “we,” “us,” “our” and “Fiserv” refer to Fiserv, Inc. (“Fiserv”), a Wisconsin corporation, and, unless the context otherwise requires, its consolidated subsidiaries.
Item 1.  Business
Overview
Fiserv, Inc. is a leading global provider of financial services technology. We are publicly traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market and part of the S&P 500 Index. We serve clients around the globe, including banks, credit unions, other financial institutions and merchants. We provide account processing systems; electronic payments processing products and services, such as electronic bill payment and presentment services, account-to-account transfers, person-to-person payments, debit network solutions, debit card processing and services, general purpose credit, retail private label and commercial credit card processing and services, and payments infrastructure services; internet and mobile banking systems; and related services, including card and print personalization services, item processing and source capture services, loan origination and servicing products, stored value network solutions and fraud and risk management products and services. We also provide retail point-of-sale (“POS”) merchant acquiring and e-commerce services as well as next-generation offerings such as mobile payment services, and our cloud-based Clover® line of payment solutions and related applications. Most of the services we provide are necessary for our clients to operate their businesses and are, therefore, non-discretionary in nature. We service our global client base by working among our geographic teams across various regions: the United States and Canada; Europe, Middle East and Africa; Latin America; and Asia Pacific.
In 2019, we had $10.2 billion in total revenue, $1.6 billion in operating income and $2.8 billion of net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations. Processing and services revenue, which in 2019 represented 84% of our total revenue, is primarily generated from account- and transaction-based fees under multi-year contracts that generally have high renewal rates. We have operations and offices located both within the United States (the “U.S.” or “domestic”) and outside of the U.S. (“international”) with revenues from domestic and international products and services as a percentage of total revenue as follows for the years ended December 31:
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Total revenue
 
$
10,187

 
$
5,823

 
$
5,696

   Domestic
 
88
%
 
94
%
 
95
%
   International
 
12
%
 
6
%
 
5
%
We have grown our business by developing highly specialized product and service enhancements, extending our capabilities geographically and through innovation, welcoming new clients, selling additional products and services to existing clients and acquiring businesses that complement ours, all of which have enabled us to deliver a wide range of integrated products and services and have created new opportunities for growth.
We originally incorporated in Delaware in 1984 and reincorporated as a Wisconsin corporation in 1992. Our headquarters are located at 255 Fiserv Drive, Brookfield, Wisconsin 53045, and our telephone number is (262) 879-5000.
Our operations are comprised of the First Data segment, the Payments and Industry Products (“Payments”) segment and the Financial Institution Services (“Financial”) segment.
First Data
On July 29, 2019, we completed the acquisition of First Data Corporation (“First Data”), a global leader in commerce-enabling technology and solutions for merchants, financial institutions and card issuers. The businesses in our First Data segment primarily provide merchant acquiring, e-commerce, mobile commerce and other business solutions at the point-of-sale to businesses of all sizes and types; credit card and loan account processing, commercial payments, customer communications, plastics solutions, customer service and other products to support issuers; and a range of network solutions and security, risk and fraud management solutions to business and financial institution clients, including U.S. debit card processing, our STAR® network, stored value commerce solutions (both closed-loop and open-loop), and our suite of security and fraud products and services. The businesses in the First Data segment are subject to a modest level of seasonality, with the first quarter experiencing the lowest level of revenue and the fourth quarter experiencing the highest level of revenue. Our products and services in the First Data segment include:

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Global Business Solutions (“GBS”)
The businesses within GBS provide a wide range of solutions to merchants around the world, including physical retail POS merchant acquiring and e-commerce services, next-generation offerings such as mobile payment services, our cloud-based Clover® POS operating system, which includes a marketplace for proprietary and third-party business applications, and check validation. We serve nearly six million business locations globally. We typically provide these services as part of a broader commerce-enabling solution to our business clients across three primary channels:
Retail POS - Physical businesses or storefront locations, such as retailers, supermarkets, restaurants and petroleum stations with brick and mortar facilities
Online POS (e-commerce) - Online businesses or website locations, such as retailers, digital content providers, and mobile application developers with Internet-based storefronts that can be accessed through a personal computer or a mobile device
Mobile POS - Physical businesses with remote or wireless storefront locations, such as retailers and service providers that use mobile devices to accept electronic payments
Revenues within GBS are primarily derived from processing credit and debit card transactions for merchants and other business clients and include fees for providing processing, loyalty and software services and sales or leases of POS devices. GBS revenues and earnings are impacted by the number of transactions and payment volume, the mix of consumer use of credit and debit cards and the size of the merchant or other business client.
Global Financial Solutions (“GFS”)
The businesses within GFS provide financial institutions, which include bank and non-bank issuers such as retailers with proprietary card portfolios, with a broad range of technology solutions that enable them to offer financial products and solutions to their customers. These solutions include general purpose credit, retail private label, commercial card and loan processing globally, as well as licensed financial software systems, such as our VisionPLUS processing application. Businesses within GFS also provide financial institutions with a suite of account services including card personalization and embossing, customer communications, professional services and customer servicing, including call center solutions and back-office processing. Globally, GFS revenues are diversified across financial institutions of various sizes and geographies and are typically generated on the basis of number of total and active accounts on file, volume of customer communications, volume of plastics issued or license fees.
Network & Security Solutions (“NSS”)
The businesses within NSS provide a range of network services and security, risk and fraud management products to business and financial institution clients in our GBS and GFS businesses, and independently to financial institutions, businesses, governments, processors and other clients. These products and services include our EFT network solutions (STAR® network and debit card processing), our stored value network solutions (Money Network® and gift solutions) and our security and fraud solutions (TransArmor® and TeleCheck®). The businesses within NSS also support our other digital strategies, including online and mobile banking, and our business supporting mobile wallets.
Payments
The businesses in our Payments segment provide financial institutions and other companies with the products and services required to process electronic payment transactions and to offer their customers access to financial services and transaction capability through digital channels. Financial institutions and other companies have increasingly relied on third-party providers for those products and services, primarily on an outsourced basis. This is driven by the increasing number of payment transactions being completed electronically as our clients’ customers seek the convenience of 24-hour digital access to their financial accounts. Within the Payments segment, we primarily provide electronic bill payment and presentment services, internet and mobile banking software and services, account-to-account transfers, person-to-person payment services, debit and credit card processing and services, payments infrastructure services and other electronic payments software and services. Our businesses in this segment also provide card and print personalization services, investment account processing services for separately managed accounts, and fraud and risk management products and services. Our products and services in the Payments segment include:
Electronic Payments
Our electronic payments business is comprised of electronic bill payment and presentment services and other electronic payment services for businesses and consumers, such as person-to-person payments, account-to-account transfers, and account

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opening and funding. Our principal electronic bill payment and presentment product, CheckFree® RXP®, allows our clients’ customers: to manage household bills via an easy-to-use, online tool; to view billing and payment information; to pay and manage all of their bills in one place; and to complete same-day or next-day bill payments to a wide range of billers and others.
Our person-to-person payments and account-to-account services allow consumers a convenient way to send and receive money while offering financial institutions the opportunity to generate new transaction-based revenue, attract new accounts and increase loyalty among existing customers. Approximately 2,500 financial institutions have agreed to offer person-to-person payments services through Fiserv to their customers as of December 31, 2019. In addition to Fiserv’s own service, Popmoney®, we partner with Early Warning Services, LLC to offer a turnkey implementation of its Zelle® real-time person-to-person payments service. Our turnkey solution simplifies the implementation of Zelle by providing interface, risk management, alerting, settlement and other services to clients.
Digital Channels
Our principal digital consumer and business banking products are Architect, Corillian Online®, Corillian® Business Online, Mobiliti, Mobiliti Business, and SecureNow. Our Corillian product suite supports multiple lines of banking businesses and has been designed to be highly scalable to meet the evolving needs of our clients. This structure enables our clients to deploy new services by adding and integrating applications, such as electronic bill payment, person-to-person payments and personal financial management tools, to any internet connected point-of-presence. Our Mobiliti product suite provides a variety of mobile banking and payments services to our clients and their customers via mobile browser, downloadable application for smartphones and tablets, text message, and Amazon® Alexa voice banking. Our Architect product suite supports online, mobile and tablet banking for retail and small business customers on a single platform. Each of these suites enables customers to complete balance inquiries, view their transaction history, make bill payments, and transfer funds between accounts and other people. As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 2,300 hosted Mobiliti clients. Our SecureNow product delivers real-time cybersecurity defense capability designed specifically for digital financial services and integrates industry-leading controls into a single platform, and is pre-integrated with key Fiserv digital assets, including Corillian Online, Architect and other Fiserv platforms for rapid deployment.
Biller Solutions
Our biller business provides electronic billing and payment services to companies that deliver bills to their customer base, such as utilities, telephone and cable companies, lending institutions, and insurance providers, enabling our biller clients to reduce costs, collect payments faster through multiple channels, increase customer satisfaction, and provide customers flexible, easy-to-use ways to view and pay their bills. Our clients’ customers access our electronic billing and payment systems by viewing or paying a bill through a financial institution’s bill payment application, using a biller’s website, mobile application, automated phone system or customer service representative, leveraging www.mycheckfree.com, or by paying in person at one of more than 30,000 nationwide walk-in payment locations operated by our agents. These diverse options allow our clients’ customers to view and pay bills wherever, whenever and however they feel most comfortable. Furthermore, because our biller clients are able to receive all of these services from us, we can eliminate the operational complexity and expense of supporting multiple vendor systems or in-house developed systems.
Card Services
Our card services business is a leader in electronic funds transfer services and provides a total payments solution through a variety of products and services. We provide thousands of financial institution clients with a full range of credit and debit processing services, including: ATM driving, tokenization, loyalty and reward programs, real-time person-to-person payments, customized authorization processing, gateway processing to payment networks, and risk management products. We own and operate the Accel® network, which serves more than 3,000 financial institutions with funds access at over 500,000 ATMs and which incorporates CardFree CashSM access as well as EMV chip and traditional magnetic stripe cards. Our Accel network POS support delivers comprehensive coverage of PIN and signature authentication support at physical and e-commerce merchants across the country. Our digital enablement capability provides our clients’ customers with mobile-based, customizable card management and alert tools that drive engagement and revenue for card issuers, and our risk management tools and portfolio management services are integrated with real-time fraud decisioning. In 2018, we acquired the debit card processing, ATM Managed Services, and MoneyPass® surcharge-free network of Elan Financial Services, a unit of U.S. Bancorp, enabling access to over 61,000 surcharge-free ATMs.

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Output Solutions
Our output solutions business provides business communication products and services to clients across a wide variety of industries, including financial services, healthcare, retail, utilities, and travel and entertainment. Our products and services include: electronic document management through our electronic document delivery products and services; card manufacturing, personalization and mailing; statement production and mailing; design and fulfillment of direct mail services; forms distribution; laser printing and mailing; branded merchandise; and office supplies.
Risk Management and Other Solutions
Our risk management business provides financial and risk management products and services that deliver operating efficiencies and management insight that enable our clients to protect and grow their businesses. Our enterprise performance management and financial control offerings include budgeting and planning, financial accounting, and automated reconciliation and account certification tools to facilitate a robust assessment environment and efficient close process for our clients. These solutions are further complemented by fraud detection and mitigation through our predictive analytics service, Fraud Risk and Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Management. Our deposit liquidity solutions enable our clients to retain, monetize and grow their deposit account base while responding to increased demand for short-term liquidity. Our enterprise payments business also provides financial institutions with the infrastructure they need to process non-card-based electronic payments, including ACH, wire and instant payments, and to manage associated information flows. Clients may use the Dovetail payment platform applications on a licensed or hosted basis, and as an add-on to existing legacy technology or as a stand-alone comprehensive modern payments platform.
Investment Services
The investment services business provides technology products and services to financial service organizations, including broker dealers, registered investment advisors, banks, asset managers and insurance companies that deliver financial advice and managed account products to U.S. retail investors. The business’ primary product, the Unified Wealth Platform, is a real-time portfolio management, trading and reporting system used by some of the largest brokerage firms and asset managers in the U.S. offering managed accounts. On February 18, 2020, we completed the sale of a 60% interest in this business to a group of investors.
Financial
The businesses in our Financial segment provide financial institutions with the products and services they need to run their operations. By licensing software from third parties or outsourcing their processing requirements by contracting with third-party processors, financial institutions are typically able to reduce costs and enhance their products, services, capacity and capabilities. For example, the licensing of software reduces the need for costly technical expertise within a financial institution, and outsourcing processing operations reduces the infrastructure and other costs required to operate systems internally. Within the Financial segment, we provide financial institutions with account processing services, item processing and source capture services, loan origination and servicing products, cash management and consulting services, and other products and services that support numerous types of financial transactions. Many of the products and services that we sell are integrated with solutions from our Payments segment such as electronic bill payment and presentment, internet and mobile banking, debit processing and network services, and person-to-person payments. Our products and services in the Financial segment include:
Account Processing
We provide account servicing and management technology products and services to our depository institution clients, as well as a range of integrated, value-added banking products and services. Account processing solutions enable a financial institution to operate systems that process customer deposit and loan accounts, an institution’s general ledger, central information files and other financial information. These solutions also include extensive security, report generation and other features that financial institutions need to process transactions for their customers, as well as to facilitate compliance with applicable regulations. Although many of our clients contract to obtain a majority of their processing requirements from us, our software design allows clients to start with one application and, as needed, add applications and features developed by us or by third parties. We support a broad range of client-owned peripheral devices manufactured by a variety of vendors, which reduce a new client’s initial conversion expenses, enhance existing clients’ ability to change technology and broaden our market opportunity.
The principal account processing solutions used by our bank clients are Cleartouch®, DNA®, Precision®, Premier® and Signature®. The principal account processing solutions primarily used by our credit union clients are DNA, Portico®, Spectrum®, XP2®, DataSafe®, Galaxy®, CUnify, CharlotteSM, OnCU®, CubicsPlus®, CUSA® and Reliance. The Signature and DNA solutions are available both domestically and internationally. Account processing solutions are offered primarily as an outsourced service for installation on client-owned or -hosted computer systems.

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Item Processing
Through the Fiserv® Clearing Network, we provide check clearing and image exchange services. Other products and services include image archive with online retrieval, in-clearings, exceptions and returns, statements and fraud detection. We also provide consulting services, business operations services and related software products that promote change in deposit behavior to transition check capture from branch and teller channels to digital self-service deposit channels, including mobile, merchant and ATM.
Lending and Other Solutions
In 2018, we sold a majority interest of our Lending Solutions business. We currently maintain a minority interest in two joint ventures, one that offers the LoanServ™ mortgage and consumer loan servicing platform and another that offers automotive loan origination and servicing products. Other business solutions include products and services for ACH and treasury management, case management and resolution, and source capture optimization to the financial services industry. Our offerings include Immediate FundsSM, PEP+®, and our remote deposit capture solutions branded as Source Capture Solutions®.
Our Strategy
Our aspiration is to move money and information in a way that moves the world. Our purpose is to deliver superior value for our clients through leading technology, targeted innovation and excellence in everything we do. We are focused on operating businesses where we have: deep industry expertise that enables us to serve the market with high effectiveness; a strong competitive position, currently or via a clear path in the foreseeable future; long-term, trusted client relationships that are based on recurring services and transactions; differentiated solutions that deliver value to our clients through integration and innovation; and strong management to execute strategies in a disciplined manner. Consistent with this focus, we continue to operate our business in accordance with the following strategic framework:
Operational Effectiveness and Integration of First Data. We believe we can improve the quality of our client delivery while reducing our costs by using the opportunities created by our size and scale and by effectively integrating the operations of First Data. By streamlining our overall cost structure, including the rationalization of duplicate costs, we expect to meet or exceed planned cost synergies and improve the quality of products and services that we provide to our clients.
Portfolio Management. We expect to acquire businesses when we identify: a compelling strategic need, such as a product, service or technology that helps meet client demand; an opportunity to change industry dynamics; a way to achieve business scale; or similar considerations. We expect to divest businesses that are not in line with our market, product or financial strategies.
Client Relationship Value. We plan to increase the number and breadth of our client relationships by, among other actions: continuing to integrate our products and services; introducing new products and services that are aligned with market needs; combining products and services to deliver enhanced, integrated value propositions; and improving the quality of our client service and support.
Capital Discipline. We intend to make capital allocation decisions that offer the best prospects for our long-term growth and profitability, which may include, among other matters, internal investment, repayment of debt, repurchases of our own shares or acquisitions.
Innovation. We seek to be an innovation leader, utilizing our assets and capabilities to be at the forefront of our industry and enable our clients to deliver best-in-class results.
Servicing the Market
The financial technology industry is highly dynamic, with new innovations entering the market and driving the expectations of our clients globally. The markets for our solutions have specific needs and requirements, with strong emphasis placed by clients on quality, security, service reliability, timely introduction of new capabilities and features, flexibility and value. This requires us to continue our strong emphasis on solution development to meet and exceed the specific needs of our clients. We believe that our financial strength and decades of specialized market knowledge enable us to support our clients to meet their changing preferences. In addition, we believe that our focus on quality, innovation, client service and our commitment of substantial resources to training and technical support helps us to identify and fulfill the needs of our clients.

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Product Development
To meet the changing technology needs of our clients, we continually develop, maintain and enhance our products and systems. Our development and technology operations apply the expertise of multiple teams to design, develop and maintain specialized processing systems. Our solutions are designed to meet the preferences and diverse requirements of the international, national, regional or local market-specific financial service environments of our clients. In developing our products, we use current software development principles, such as service-oriented architecture, to create efficiencies, and we stress interaction with and responsiveness to the needs of our clients.
Intellectual Property
We regard our software, transaction processing services and related products as proprietary, and we use a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, internal security practices and employee and third-party non-disclosure agreements to protect our intellectual property assets. Our patents cover innovations relating to numerous financial software products and services, and we continue, where appropriate, to seek and secure patents with respect to our ongoing innovations. We believe that we possess all proprietary rights necessary to conduct our business.
Competition
The market for technology products and services in the financial industry is highly competitive. Our principal competitors include other vendors of financial services technology, data processing affiliates of large companies, and processing centers owned and operated as user cooperatives. Outside the U.S., our primary competitors include global and local IT product and services companies, as well as payment service providers and processors. We expect competition to continue to increase as new companies enter our markets and existing competitors expand their product lines and services. Some of these competitors possess substantially greater financial, sales and marketing resources than we do and have substantial flexibility in competing with us, including through the use of integrated product offerings and through pricing. Competitive factors for our business include product quality, security, breadth of features and functionality, integration with other product lines, global reach, multiple distribution channels, service reliability, timely introduction of new products and features, platform scalability and flexibility and value. We believe that we compete favorably in each of these categories. Additional information about competition in our segments is provided below.
First Data
The businesses in our First Data segment compete with merchant acquirers, including Fidelity National Information Services, Inc. (“FIS”) and Global Payments Inc. (“Global Payments”), as well as with financial institutions that provide acquiring and processing services to businesses on their own, such as Paymentech, LLC (“Paymentech”) , Elavon Inc. (a subsidiary of U.S. Bancorp) and Barclaycard. In many cases, our alliance and commercial partners compete against each other. Additionally, payment networks such as Visa Inc. (“Visa”) and Mastercard Incorporated (“Mastercard”) are increasingly offering products and services that compete with our suite of merchant acquiring solutions. We also compete with card issuer processors, such as Global Payments, FIS and Worldline SA, the card issuer processing businesses of the global payment networks, such as Visa and Mastercard, as well as various software or custom designed solutions that some financial institutions use to perform these services in-house. We compete with networks such as Visa, Mastercard and Discover Financial Services, Inc. for debit network services, and with FIS for debit network and check verification and guarantee services.
Payments
The businesses in our Payments segment compete with a number of traditional and emerging competitors that provide a wide range of POS and non-POS payments solutions. Existing and potential financial institution and biller clients could also develop and use their own in-house systems instead of our products and services. In addition, many companies that provide solutions to the financial services industry are consolidating, creating larger competitors with greater resources and broader product lines.
Financial
Our products and services in the Financial segment compete in several different market segments and geographies, including with large, diversified software and service companies and independent suppliers of software products. Existing and potential financial institution clients could also develop and use their own in-house systems. In addition, we compete with vendors that offer similar transaction processing products and services to financial institutions, including Computer Services, Inc., Finastra Limited, FIS, Infosys Ltd., International Business Machines Corporation, Jack Henry and Associates Inc., NCR Corporation, Oracle Corporation, SAP SE and Temenos AG.

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Government Regulation
Our operations, and the products and services that we offer, are subject to various U.S. federal, state and local regulation, as well as regulation outside the U.S., and to other rules, such as those promulgated by various payment networks and banking authorities. Failure to comply with these rules and regulations may result in the suspension or revocation of licenses or registrations, the limitation, suspension or termination of service and/or the imposition of civil and criminal penalties, including fines. In addition, we may be required, among other things, to make significant additional investments to comply with such rules and regulations, to modify our products or services or the manner in which they are provided, or to limit or change the amount or types of revenue we are able to generate.
The Dodd-Frank Act.  The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank Act”) in the United States resulted in significant changes to the regulation of the financial services industry. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act established a new, independent regulatory agency known as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) which is empowered to conduct rule-making and supervision related to, and enforcement of, “federal consumer financial laws,” some of which apply to products and services offered by our clients. The CFPB conducts direct examinations of, and has issued guidance that applies to, “supervised banks and nonbanks” as well as “supervised service providers” like us. Separately, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act: debit interchange rates for card issuers operating in the United States with assets of $10 billion or more have been capped; debit payment card networks are banned from prohibiting an issuer from contracting with any other payment card network that may process an electronic debit transaction involving an issuer’s debit cards; card issuers and payment networks are prohibited from limiting the ability of merchants to direct the routing of debit card transactions over any network that can process the transaction; all debit card issuers in the United States are required to participate in at least two unaffiliated debit payment card networks; and network exclusivity arrangements are generally prohibited for prepaid card and healthcare debit card issuers. These Dodd-Frank Act regulations impact our card processing businesses and our clients’ ability to generate revenue.
Association and Network Rules. We are subject to rules of Mastercard, Visa, INTERAC, PULSE and other payment networks. In order to provide processing services, a number of our subsidiaries are registered with Visa and/or Mastercard as service providers for member institutions. A number of our subsidiaries outside the U.S. are direct members or associate members of Visa and Mastercard for purposes of conducting merchant acquiring. Various subsidiaries are also processor level members of numerous debit and electronic benefits transaction networks or are otherwise subject to various network rules in connection with processing services and other services we provide. As such, we are subject to applicable card association, network and national scheme rules that could subject us to fines or penalties. We are subject to network operating rules promulgated by the National Automated Clearing House Association relating to payment transactions processed by us using the Automated Clearing House Network and to various federal and state laws regarding such operations, including laws pertaining to electronic benefits transactions.
Financial Institution Regulations. Because a number of our businesses provide data processing services for financial institutions, we are subject to examination by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (“FFIEC”), which is a formal interagency body empowered to examine significant service providers to financial institutions. The member agencies of the FFIEC include the Federal Reserve Board, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the National Credit Union Administration, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and the CFPB.
Under the Second Payment Services Directive (2015/2366/EC) in the European Union (PSD2), a number of our subsidiaries hold either payment institution licenses or electronic money licenses in the European Union member states in which such subsidiaries do business. As payment institutions or electronic money institutions, we are subject to regulation and oversight in the applicable European Union member state, which includes, among other obligations, a requirement to maintain specified regulatory capital.
One of our subsidiaries in the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) is regulated by the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority and is therefore required to comply with certain prudential, conduct of business and reporting requirements. The subsidiary arranges and advises on certain insurance contracts for the purpose of arranging insurance taken out by its issuer clients’ cardholders; engages in certain credit activities related to its issuer services and merchant terminal leasing businesses; engages in credit administration and debt collections activities on behalf of its card issuing clients through calls and correspondence with the cardholders; and operates a consumer hire business for the purpose of leasing POS devices to merchants. We own a subsidiary in Germany that is regulated as a processor for German debit card transactions. Failure to comply with the technical requirements set forth by the regulators may result in suspension or termination of services. Further, several subsidiaries provide services such as acquiring, issuing, factoring and/or settlement that make them subject to regulation by local financial services supervisory agencies, including the National Bank of Poland, the Reserve Bank of Australia, and the German Federal Financial Supervision Agency.

8


We own a subsidiary that engages in certain trust activities and is subject to regulation, examination, and oversight by the Division of Banking of the Colorado Department of Regulatory Agencies. However, because the subsidiary is not a “bank” under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (“BHCA”), our affiliation with it does not cause us to be regulated as a bank holding company or financial holding company under the BHCA.
Privacy and Information Security Regulations. We provide services that are subject to various federal, state and foreign privacy laws and regulations which govern, among other things, the collection, processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal information. These laws contain a variety of obligations including the safeguarding of personal information, the provision of notices and use and disclosure rights. The regulations are complex and can provide for significant financial penalties for non-compliance.
Credit Reporting and Debt Collections Regulations. Our TeleCheck business is subject to the U.S. federal Fair Credit Reporting Act and various similar state laws. The collection business within TRS Recovery Services, Inc. (“TRS”) is subject to the U.S. federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act and various similar state laws. TRS maintains licenses in a number of states in order to engage in collection in those states. TeleCheck and TRS are also subject to regulation, supervision and examination from the CFPB. Additional regulations may be imposed in the future, including laws regulating activities with respect to current or emerging technology such as automated dialers or pre-recorded messaging or calls to cellular phones, which could impair the collection by TRS of returned checks and those purchased under TeleCheck’s guarantee services. Moreover, reducing or eliminating access to or the use of certain information or proscribing the maintenance or use of consumer databases could reduce the effectiveness of TeleCheck’s risk management tools or otherwise increase its costs of doing business. In addition, several of our subsidiaries are subject to comparable local laws regarding collection activities and obtaining credit reports.
Unfair Trade Practice Regulations. We and our clients are subject to various federal, state and foreign laws prohibiting unfair or deceptive trade practices. Various regulatory enforcement agencies, including the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) and state attorneys general, have authority to take action against parties that engage in unfair or deceptive trade practices or violate other laws, rules and regulations. If we process payments for a client in violation of laws, rules and regulations, we would be subject to enforcement actions and incur losses and liabilities that may impact our business. For example, TeleCheck and TRS are subject to a consent decree with the FTC which, among other items, addresses the timeliness of certain actions that they take.
Anti-Money Laundering, Anti-Bribery, and Sanctions Regulations. We are subject to anti-money laundering laws and regulations, including the Bank Secrecy Act (the “BSA”). Among other things, the BSA requires money services businesses (such as money transmitters, issuers of money orders and official checks and providers of prepaid access) to develop and implement anti-money laundering programs. In the European Union, our global solutions businesses are subject to various laws implementing European anti-money laundering legislation.
We are subject to anti-corruption laws and regulations, including the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and similar laws outside of the United States, that prohibit the making or offering of improper payments to foreign government officials and political figures. The FCPA has a broad reach and requires maintenance of appropriate records and adequate internal controls to prevent and detect possible FCPA violations.
We are subject to certain economic and trade sanctions programs that are administered by the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), which prohibit or restrict transactions to or from or dealings with specified countries, governments, individuals and entities that are specially-designated nationals of those countries, narcotics traffickers and terrorists or terrorist organizations. Other group entities may be subject to additional local sanctions requirements in other relevant jurisdictions.
Similar anti-money laundering, counter terrorist financing and proceeds of crime laws apply to movements of currency and payments through electronic transactions and to dealings with persons specified in lists maintained by the country equivalents to OFAC lists in several other countries and require specific data retention obligations to be observed by intermediaries in the payment process. Our businesses in those jurisdictions are subject to those data retention obligations.
Money Transmission and Payment Instrument Licensing and Regulations. We are subject to various U.S. federal, state and foreign laws and regulations governing money transmission and the issuance and sale of payment instruments, including some of our prepaid products. In the U.S., most states license money transmitters and issuers of payment instruments. Many states exercise authority over the operations of our services related to money transmission and payment instruments and, as part of this authority, subject us to periodic examinations. Many states require money transmitters, issuers of payment instruments and

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their agents to comply with federal and state anti-money laundering laws and regulations and often require the licensee to maintain certain levels of net worth.
Communications Laws. We are subject to various federal and state laws that govern telephone calls and the issuance of text messages to clients and consumers in the U.S. as well as to regulations that impose requirements on marketing emails sent to U.S residents. Our international subsidiaries are subject to equivalent laws in applicable jurisdictions.
Indirect Regulatory Requirements. A number of our clients are subject to various regulations and compliance obligations that do not apply directly to us but impact the services that we provide to our clients. To remain competitive, we have expended, and expect to expend in the future, significant resources to develop and update our products and services to assist our clients to meet various compliance obligations. In addition, independent auditors annually review many of our operations to provide internal control evaluations for our clients and their auditors.
Employees
At December 31, 2019, we employed over 44,000 employees on a full-time basis. Approximately 16,000 of our employees are employed outside of the U.S., with a small percentage of those employees being represented by local unions and works councils. None of our employees in the U.S. are represented by any labor organization. The service nature of our business makes our employees an important corporate asset. Although the market for qualified personnel is competitive, we have not experienced significant difficulty with hiring or retaining our staff of top industry professionals.
Available Information
Our website address is www.fiserv.com. We are not including the information provided on our website as a part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We make available free of charge (other than an investor’s own internet access charges) through our website our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the Securities and Exchange Commission.

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Item 1A.  Risk Factors
You should carefully consider each of the risks described below, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before making an investment decision with respect to our securities. If any of the following risks develop into actual events, our business, results of operations or financial condition could be materially and adversely affected, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Relating to our Business
We operate in a competitive business environment and may not be able to compete effectively.
The markets for our products and services are highly competitive from new and existing competitors. Our principal competitors include other vendors of financial services technology and payment systems, data processing affiliates of large companies, processing centers owned and operated as user cooperatives, financial institutions, independent sales organizations (“ISOs”), independent software vendors, and payments companies. Our competitors vary in size and in the scope and breadth of the services they offer. Many of our larger existing and potential clients have historically developed their key applications in-house. As a result, we often compete against our existing or potential clients’ in-house capabilities. In addition, we expect that the markets in which we compete will continue to attract new technologies and well-funded competitors, including large technology, telecommunication, media and other companies not historically in the financial services and payments industries, start-ups and international providers of products and services similar to ours. In addition, participants in the financial services, payments and technology industries may merge, create joint ventures or form other business combinations that may strengthen their existing business services or create new payment services that compete with our services. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors or that competitive pressures faced by us in the markets in which we operate will not materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we fail to keep pace with technological change we could lose clients or have trouble attracting new clients, and our ability to grow may be limited.
The markets for our products and services are characterized by constant and rapid technological change, frequent introduction of new products and services, and increasing client expectations. Our ability to enhance our current products and services and to develop and introduce innovative products and services will significantly affect our future success. We may not be successful in developing, marketing or selling new products and services that meet these demands or achieve market acceptance. We must anticipate and respond to these changes in order to remain competitive within our relevant markets. For example, our ability to provide innovative point-of-sale technology to our merchant clients could have an impact on our merchant acquiring business, and new services and technologies that we develop may be impacted by industry-wide solutions and standards related to tokenization or other safety and security technologies. If we are unable to anticipate or respond to technological changes or evolving industry standards on a timely basis, our ability to remain competitive could be materially adversely affected. In addition, the success of certain of our products and services rely, in part, on financial institutions, billers and other third parties to promote the use of our products and services by their customers. If we are unsuccessful in offering products or services that gain market acceptance and compete effectively, or if third parties insufficiently promote our products and services, it would likely have a material adverse effect on our ability to retain existing clients, to attract new ones and to grow profitably.
If we are unable to renew client contracts at favorable terms, we could lose clients and our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
Failure to achieve favorable renewals of client contracts could negatively impact our business. At the end of the contract term, clients have the opportunity to renegotiate their contracts with us or to consider whether to engage one or more of our competitors to provide products and services or to perform the services in-house. Some of our competitors may offer more attractive fees or other services that we do not offer, and some clients may desire to perform the services themselves. Larger clients may be able to seek lower prices from us when they renew or extend a contract or the client’s business has significant volume changes. In addition, larger clients may reduce the services we provide if they decide to move services in-house. Further, our small merchant business clients may exert pricing pressure due to pricing competition or other economic needs or pressures such clients experience from their customers. On some occasions, these factors result in lower revenue from a client than we had anticipated based on our previous agreement with that client. If we are not successful in achieving high renewal rates and favorable contract terms, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

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Our business depends, in part, on our merchant and financial institution relationships and alliances, and if we are unable to maintain these relationships and alliances, our business may be adversely affected.
Under our alliance program, a bank or other institution forms an alliance with us, generally on an exclusive basis, either contractually or through a separate legal entity. Merchant contracts may be contributed to the alliance by us and/or the bank or institution. The banks and other institutions generally provide card association sponsorship, clearing and settlement services and typically act as a merchant referral source when the institution has an existing banking or other relationship with such merchant. We provide transaction processing and related functions to the alliance. Both we and our alliance partners may also provide management, sales, marketing and other administrative services. The alliance structure allows us to be the processor for multiple financial institutions, any one of which may be selected by the merchant as its bank partner. Our merchant acquiring business depends, in part, on our merchant relationships, alliances and other distribution channels. There can be no guarantee that we will achieve growth in our merchant relationships, alliances or other distribution channels. In addition, our contractual arrangements with merchants and merchant alliance partners are for fixed terms and may allow for early termination upon the occurrence of certain events. There can be no assurance that we will be able to renew our contractual arrangements with these merchants or merchant alliance partners on similar terms or at all. In addition, we rely on various financial institutions to provide clearing services in connection with our settlement activities. If such financial institutions stop providing clearing services or limit our volumes we would need to find other financial institutions to provide those services. The loss of merchant relationships or alliance and financial institution partners could negatively impact our business and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Consolidations in the banking and financial services industry could adversely affect our revenue by eliminating existing or potential clients and making us more dependent on fewer clients.
Mergers, consolidations and failures of financial institutions reduce the number of our clients and potential clients, which could adversely affect our revenue. If our clients merge with or are acquired by other entities that are not our clients, or that use fewer of our services, they may discontinue or reduce their use of our services. Our alliance strategy could also be negatively affected by consolidations, especially where the financial institutions involved are committed to their internal merchant processing businesses that compete with us. It is also possible that the larger financial institutions that result from mergers or consolidations could have greater leverage in negotiating terms with us or could decide to perform in-house some or all of the services which we currently provide or could provide. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Security incidents or other technological risks involving our systems and data, or those of our clients, partners or vendors, could expose us to liability or damage our reputation.
Our operations depend on receiving, storing, processing and transmitting sensitive information pertaining to our business, our employees, our clients and their customers. Under the card network rules, various federal, state and international laws, and client contracts, we are responsible for information provided to us by financial institutions, merchants, independent sales organizations, third-party service providers and others. The confidentiality of such sensitive business information and personal consumer information residing on our systems is critical to our business. Any unauthorized access, intrusion, infiltration, network disruption, denial of service or similar incident could disrupt the integrity, continuity, security and trust of our systems or data, or the systems or data of our clients, partners or vendors. These incidents are often difficult to detect and are constantly evolving. We expect that unauthorized parties will continue to attempt to gain access to our systems or facilities, and those of our clients, partners and vendors, through various means and with increasing sophistication. These events could create costly litigation, significant financial liability, increased regulatory scrutiny, financial sanctions and a loss of confidence in our ability to serve clients and cause current or potential clients to choose another service provider, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business. In addition, we expect to continue to invest significant resources to maintain and enhance our information security and controls or to investigate and remediate any security vulnerabilities. Although we believe that we maintain a robust program of information security and controls and that none of the events that we have encountered to date have materially impacted us, we cannot be certain that the security measures and procedures we have in place to detect security incidents and protect sensitive data, including protection against unauthorized access and use by our employees, will be successful or sufficient to counter all current and emerging technological risks and threats. The impact of a material event involving our systems and data, or those of our clients, partners or vendors, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Operational failures and resulting interruptions in the implementation or availability of our products or services could harm our business and reputation.
Our business depends heavily on the reliability of our processing and other systems. An operational failure and the resulting implementation delays or service interruption could harm our business or cause us to lose clients. An operational failure could

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involve the hardware, software, data, networks or systems upon which we rely to deliver our services and could be caused by our actions, the actions of third parties or events over which we may have limited or no control. Events that could cause operational failures include, but are not limited to, hardware and software defects or malfunctions, computer denial-of-service and other cyberattacks, human error, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, natural disasters, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, fraud, military or political conflicts, terrorist attacks, computer viruses or other malware, or other events. Implementation delays, interruptions of service or hardware device defects could damage our relationship with clients and could cause us to incur substantial expenses, including those related to the payment of service credits, product recalls or other liabilities. A prolonged interruption of our services or network could cause us to experience data loss or a reduction in revenue, and significantly impact our clients’ businesses and the customers they serve. In addition, a significant implementation delay, interruption of service or product recall could have a negative impact on our reputation and could cause our current and potential clients to choose another service provider. Any of these developments could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Disruptions of operations of other participants in the global financial system could prevent us from delivering our products and services.
The operations and systems of many participants in the global financial system are interconnected. Many of the transactions involving our products and services rely on multiple participants in the global financial system to move funds and communicate information to the next participant in the transaction chain. A disruption for any reason of the operations of a participant in the global financial system could impact our ability to obtain or provide information or cause funds to be moved in a manner to successfully deliver our products and services. Although we work with other participants to avoid any disruptions, there is no assurance that such efforts will be effective. Such a disruption could lead to our inability to deliver products and services, reputational damage, lost clients and revenue, loss of clients’ and their customers’ confidence, as well as additional costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Because we rely on third parties to provide products and services, we could be adversely impacted if they fail to fulfill their obligations.
Our business depends on third parties to provide us with certain products and services. The failure of these vendors to properly perform their obligations in a timely manner could expose us and our clients to information security, financial, compliance and reputational risks, among others, and adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, if we are unable to renew our existing contracts with key vendors, we might not be able to replace the related product or service at all or at the same cost, which would negatively impact our results of operations.
Our merchants may be unable to satisfy obligations for which we may also be liable.
We are subject to the risk of our merchants being unable to satisfy obligations for which we may also be liable. For example, we and our merchant acquiring alliances may be subject to contingent liability for transactions originally acquired by us that are disputed by the cardholder and charged back to the merchants. If we or the alliance is unable to collect this amount from the merchant because of the merchant’s insolvency or other reasons, we or the alliance will bear the loss for the amount of the refund paid to the cardholder. Although we have an active program to manage our credit risk and often mitigate our risk by obtaining collateral, a default on such obligations by one or more of our merchants could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Fraud by merchants or others could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may be subject to potential liability for fraudulent transactions, including electronic payment and card transactions or credits initiated by merchants or others. Examples of merchant fraud include when a merchant or other party knowingly uses a stolen or counterfeit credit, debit or prepaid card, card number or other credentials to record a false sales transaction, processes an invalid card or intentionally fails to deliver the merchandise or services sold in an otherwise valid transaction. Criminals are using increasingly sophisticated methods to engage in illegal activities such as counterfeiting and fraud. We also rely on ISOs to sell our merchant processing services, which they may do by contracting with their own sub-ISOs. We rely on these ISOs and sub-ISOs to exercise appropriate controls to avoid fraudulent transactions. It is possible that incidents of fraud could increase in the future. Failure to effectively manage risk and prevent fraud, or otherwise effectively administer our chargeback responsibilities, would increase our chargeback liability, exposure to fines or other liabilities. Increases in chargebacks, fines or other liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Our business may be adversely affected by geopolitical and other risks associated with operations outside of the United States and, as we continue to expand internationally, we may incur higher than anticipated costs and may become more susceptible to these risks.
We offer merchant acquiring, processing and issuing services outside of the U.S., including in the U.K., Germany, Argentina, India and Brazil. Our facilities outside of the U.S., and those of our suppliers and vendors, including manufacturing, customer support, software development and technology hosting facilities, are subject to risks, including natural disasters, public health crises, political crises, terrorism, war, political instability and other events outside of our or our suppliers’ control. As we expand internationally and grow our client base outside of the U.S., we may face challenges due to the presence of more established competitors and our lack of experience in such non-U.S. markets, and we may incur higher than anticipated costs. If we are unable to successfully manage the risks associated with the international operation and expansion of our business, our results of operations and financial condition could be negatively impacted.
A disruptive implementation of the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union could adversely affect our results of operations.
We are monitoring developments related to the implementation of the decision of the U.K. to exit the European Union (the “E.U.”), referred to as “Brexit”, which could, among other outcomes, disrupt the free movement of goods, services, data and people between the U.K. and the E.U., undermine bilateral cooperation in key policy areas, and significantly disrupt trade between the U.K. and the E.U. The effects of Brexit will depend in part on any agreements the U.K. makes to retain access to E.U. markets. These agreements could potentially disrupt the markets we serve and the tax jurisdictions in which we operate and adversely change tax benefits or liabilities in these or other jurisdictions. In addition, Brexit could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the U.K. determines which E.U. laws to replace or replicate. Given the lack of comparable precedent, it is unclear what financial, trade and legal implications the withdrawal of the U.K. from the E.U. will have and how such withdrawal will affect us.
In addition, Brexit may create additional uncertainty in currency exchange rate fluctuations that may result in the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies in which we conduct business. We translate revenue denominated in foreign currency into U.S. dollars for our financial statements. During periods of a strengthening U.S. dollar, our reported international revenue and profit is reduced because foreign currencies translate into fewer U.S. dollars. Any of these effects of Brexit, among others, could materially adversely affect our relationships with our existing and future clients and vendors, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and business opportunities.
Changes in card association and debit network fees or products could increase costs or otherwise limit our operations.
From time to time, card associations and debit networks, including the card networks which we own and operate, increase the processing and other fees (including what is commonly known as “interchange fees”) that they charge. It is possible that competitive pressures will result in us absorbing a portion of such increases in the future, or result in us not being able to increase our own fees, which would increase our operating costs, reduce our profit margin, limit our growth, and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the various card associations and networks prescribe certain capital requirements. Any increase in the capital level required would further limit our use of capital for other purposes.
Our failure to comply with applicable complex laws and regulations could harm our businesses and subject us to liability.
If we fail to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our business, including payments industry, cybersecurity and data privacy regulations, we could be exposed to litigation or regulatory proceedings, our client relationships and reputation could be harmed, and our ability to obtain new clients could be inhibited, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Our clients are also subject to numerous laws and regulations applicable to banks, financial institutions and card issuers in the U.S. and abroad, and, consequently, we are at times affected by these federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations. Furthermore, these laws and regulations are constantly changing with new laws and regulations and interpretations thereof being implemented.
We operate our business around the world, including in certain foreign countries with developing economies where companies often engage in business practices that are prohibited by laws applicable to us, including the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act. These laws prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials and political parties for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We have implemented policies and training programs to discourage such practices; however, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, consultants and agents will comply with our policies and all applicable laws.

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We are also subject to certain economic and trade sanctions programs that are administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), which prohibit or restrict transactions to or from or dealings with specified countries, their governments, individuals and entities that are specially-designated nationals of those countries, narcotics traffickers and terrorists or terrorist organizations. Similar anti-money laundering, counter terrorist financing and proceeds of crime laws apply to movements of currency and payments through electronic transactions and to dealings with persons specified in lists equivalent to OFAC lists in several other countries and require specific data retention obligations to be observed by intermediaries in the payment process. Our businesses in those jurisdictions are subject to those data retention obligations.
Certain of our subsidiaries are licensed as money transmitters in jurisdictions where such licensure is required. In connection with such licensure, we are required to demonstrate and maintain certain levels of net worth and liquidity and to file periodic reports. In addition, our direct-to-consumer payments businesses, including our walk-in bill payment, online bill payment, digital disbursements and Popmoney person-to-person payment services, are subject to federal regulation in the U.S., including anti-money laundering regulations and certain restrictions on transactions to or from certain individuals or entities. Our subsidiary, Money Network Financial, LLC, provides prepaid access for various open loop prepaid programs for which it is the program manager and therefore must meet the requirements of the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. Certain of our businesses are also subject to anti-money laundering regulations outside the U.S. The complexity of these regulations will continue to increase our cost of doing business. In addition, any violations of law may result in civil or criminal penalties against us and our officers, or the prohibition against us providing merchant acquiring, money transmitter services or prepaid programs in particular jurisdictions.
Failure to comply with any of these laws and regulations or changes in this regulatory environment, including changing interpretations and the implementation of new, varying or more restrictive laws and regulations by federal, state, local or foreign governments, may result in significant financial penalties, reputational harm, or change the manner in which we currently conduct some aspects of our business, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we fail to comply with the applicable requirements of the payment card networks and NACHA, they could seek to fine us, suspend us or terminate our registrations, which could adversely affect our business.
In order to provide our transaction processing services, several of our subsidiaries are registered with Visa and Mastercard and other networks as members or service providers for member institutions. As such, we are subject to card association and network rules that could subject us or our clients to a variety of fines or penalties that may be levied by the card associations or networks for certain acts or omissions by us, acquiring clients, processing clients and merchants. In addition, we are subject to rules of the National Automated Clearing House Association (“NACHA”) as well as the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard enforced by the major card brands. The rules of NACHA and the card networks are set by their respective boards, some of which are our competitors, and the card network rules may be influenced by card issuers, some of which offer competing transaction processing services.
If we fail to comply with these rules, we could be fined and our member registrations or certifications could be suspended or terminated. The suspension or termination of our member registrations or certifications, or any changes to the association and network rules, that we do not successfully address, or any other action by the card networks to restrict our ability to process transactions over such networks, could limit our ability to provide transaction processing services to clients and result in a reduction of revenue or increased costs of operation, which, in either case, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
A heightened regulatory environment in the financial services industry may have an adverse impact on our clients and our business.
Since the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”), a number of substantial regulations affecting the supervision and operation of the financial services industry within the United States have been adopted, including those that establish the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”). The CFPB has issued guidance that applies to, and conducts direct examinations of, “supervised banks and nonbanks” as well as “supervised service providers” like us. In addition, the CFPB regulates consumer financial products and services (including many offered by our clients), restricts debit card fees paid by merchants to certain issuer banks and allows merchants to offer discounts for different payment methods. CFPB rules, examinations and enforcement actions may require us to adjust our activities and may increase our compliance costs. Changes to the Dodd-Frank Act or regulations could adversely impact our debit network business. In addition, certain of our alliance partners are subject to regulation by federal and state authorities and, as a result, could pass through some of those compliance obligations to us.

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To the extent this oversight or regulation negatively impacts the business, operations or financial condition of our clients, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected because, among other matters, our clients could have less capacity to purchase products and services from us, could decide to avoid or abandon certain lines of business, or could seek to pass on increased costs to us by negotiating price reductions. Additional regulation, examination and oversight of us could require us to modify the manner in which we contract with or provide products and services to our clients; directly or indirectly limit how much we can charge for our services; require us to invest additional time and resources to comply with such oversight and regulations; or limit our ability to update our existing products and services, or require us to develop new ones. Any of these events, if realized, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Legislative or regulatory initiatives on cybersecurity and data privacy could adversely impact our business and financial results.
Cybersecurity and data privacy risks have received heightened legislative and regulatory attention. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective in 2018, extends the scope of the E.U. data protection law to all companies processing data of E.U. residents, regardless of the company’s location, subject to certain limitations. The law requires companies to meet stringent requirements regarding the handling of personal data. Our efforts to comply with GDPR and other privacy and data protection laws (such as the new California Consumer Privacy Act effective as of January 2020 and the Brazilian General Data Protection Law effective as of February 2020) could involve substantial expenses, divert resources from other initiatives and projects and limit the services we are able to offer. Further, failure to comply with applicable laws in this area could also result in fines, penalties and reputational damage. U.S. banking agencies have proposed enhanced cyber risk management standards that would apply to us and our financial institution clients and that would address cyber risk governance and management, management of internal and external dependencies, and incident response, cyber resilience and situational awareness. Several states also have adopted or proposed cybersecurity laws targeting these issues. Legislation and regulations on cybersecurity and data privacy may compel us to enhance or modify our systems, invest in new systems or alter our business practices or our policies on data governance and privacy. If any of these outcomes were to occur, our operational costs could increase significantly.
Failure to comply with state and federal antitrust requirements could adversely affect our business.
Through our merchant alliances, we hold an ownership interest in several competing merchant acquiring businesses while serving as an electronic processor for those businesses. In order to satisfy state and federal antitrust requirements, we actively maintain an antitrust compliance program. Notwithstanding our compliance program, it is possible that perceived or actual violations of state or federal antitrust requirements could give rise to regulatory enforcement investigations or actions. Regulatory scrutiny of, or regulatory enforcement action in connection with, compliance with state and federal antitrust requirements could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and business.
We may be sued for infringing the intellectual property rights of others.
Third parties may claim that we are infringing their intellectual property rights. We may expose ourselves to additional liability if we agree to indemnify our clients against third-party infringement claims. If the owner of intellectual property establishes that we are, or a client which we are obligated to indemnify is, infringing its intellectual property rights, we may be forced to change our products or services, and such changes may be expensive or impractical, or we may need to seek royalty or license agreements from the owner of such rights. If we are unable to agree on acceptable terms, we may be required to discontinue the sale of key products or halt other aspects of our operations. We may also be liable for financial damages for a violation of intellectual property rights, and we may incur expenses in connection with indemnifying our clients against losses suffered by them. Any adverse result related to violation of third-party intellectual property rights could materially and adversely harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Even if intellectual property claims brought against us are without merit, they may result in costly and time-consuming litigation and may require significant attention from our management and key personnel.
Misappropriation of our intellectual property and proprietary rights could impair our competitive position.
Our ability to compete depends upon proprietary systems and technology. We actively seek to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights. Nevertheless, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our services or to obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. The steps we have taken may not prevent misappropriation of technology. Agreements entered into for that purpose may not be enforceable or provide us with an adequate remedy. It is also possible that others will independently develop the same or similar technology. Further, we use open source software in connection with our solutions. Companies that incorporate open source software into their solutions have, from time to time, faced claims challenging the ownership of solutions developed using open source software. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. Effective patent, trademark, service mark, copyright

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and trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which our applications and services are made available. The laws of certain non-U.S. countries where we do business or contemplate doing business in the future may not recognize intellectual property rights or protect them to the same extent as do the laws of the U.S. Misappropriation of our intellectual property or potential litigation concerning such matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may experience software defects, development delays or installation difficulties, which would harm our business and reputation and expose us to potential liability.
Our services are based on sophisticated software and computer systems and we may encounter delays when developing new applications and services. Further, the software underlying our services may contain undetected errors or defects when first introduced or when new versions are released. In addition, we may experience difficulties in installing or integrating our technology on systems or with other programs used by our clients. Defects in our software, errors or delays in the processing of electronic transactions or other difficulties could result in interruption of business operations, delay in market acceptance, additional development and remediation costs, diversion of technical and other resources, loss of clients or client data, negative publicity or exposure to liability claims. Although we attempt to limit our potential liability through disclaimers and limitation of liability provisions in our license and client agreements, we cannot be certain that these measures will successfully limit our liability.
Acquisitions subject us to risks, including assumption of unforeseen liabilities and difficulties in integrating operations.
A major contributor to our growth in revenue and earnings since our inception has been our ability to identify, acquire and integrate complementary businesses. We anticipate that we will continue to seek to acquire complementary businesses, products and services. We may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates or complete acquisitions in the future, which could adversely affect our future growth; or businesses that we acquire may not perform as well as expected or may be more difficult or expensive to integrate and manage than expected, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. We may not be able to integrate all aspects of acquired businesses successfully or realize the potential benefits of bringing them together. In addition, the process of integrating these acquisitions may disrupt our business and divert our resources.
In addition, acquisitions outside of the United States often involve additional or increased risks including, for example:
managing geographically separated organizations, systems and facilities;
integrating personnel with diverse business backgrounds and organizational cultures;
complying with non-U.S. regulatory requirements;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
enforcement of intellectual property rights in some non-U.S. countries;
difficulty entering new non-U.S. markets due to, among other things, consumer acceptance and business knowledge of these new markets; and
general economic and political conditions.
These risks may arise for a number of reasons: we may not be able to find suitable businesses to acquire at affordable valuations or on other acceptable terms; we may face competition for acquisitions from other potential acquirers; we may need to borrow money or sell equity or debt securities to the public to finance acquisitions and the terms of these financings may be adverse to us; changes in accounting, tax, securities or other regulations could increase the difficulty or cost for us to complete acquisitions; we may incur unforeseen obligations or liabilities in connection with acquisitions; we may need to devote unanticipated financial and management resources to an acquired business; we may not realize expected operating efficiencies or product integration benefits from an acquisition; we could enter markets where we have minimal prior experience; and we may experience decreases in earnings as a result of non-cash impairment charges.
We may be obligated to indemnify the purchasers of businesses pursuant to the terms of the relevant purchase and sale agreements.
We have in the past and may in the future sell businesses. In connection with sales of businesses, we may make representations and warranties about the businesses and their financial affairs and agree to retain certain liabilities associated with our operation of the businesses prior to their sale. Our obligation to indemnify the purchasers and agreement to retain liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

17


The failure to attract and retain key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We depend on the experience, skill and contributions of our senior management and other key employees. If we fail to attract, motivate and retain highly qualified management, technical, compliance and sales personnel, our future success could be harmed. Our senior management provides strategic direction for our company, and if we lose members of our leadership team, our management resources may have to be diverted from other priorities to address this loss. Our products and services require sophisticated knowledge of the financial services industry, applicable regulatory and industry requirements, computer systems, and software applications, and if we cannot hire or retain the necessary skilled personnel, we could suffer delays in new product development, experience difficulty complying with applicable requirements or otherwise fail to satisfy our clients’ demands.
Our business may be adversely impacted by U.S. and global market and economic conditions.
For the foreseeable future, we expect to continue to derive revenue from products and services we provide to the financial services industry and our merchant acquiring business. Given this focus, we are exposed to global economic conditions and adverse economic trends may accelerate the timing, or increase the impact of, risks to our financial performance. Such trends may include, but are not limited to, the following:
declining economies, foreign currency fluctuations, social unrest, natural disasters, public health crises, including the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, and the pace of economic recovery can change consumer spending behaviors, such as cross-border travel patterns, on which a significant portion of our revenues are dependent;
low levels of consumer and business confidence typically associated with recessionary environments and those markets experiencing relatively high inflation and/or unemployment, may cause decreased spending by cardholders;
budgetary concerns in the United States and other countries around the world could affect the United States and other specific sovereign credit ratings, impact consumer confidence and spending, and increase the risks of operating in those countries;
emerging market economies tend to be more volatile than the more established markets we serve in the United States and Europe, and adverse economic trends, including high rates of inflation, may be more pronounced in such emerging markets;
financial institutions may restrict credit lines to cardholders or limit the issuance of new cards to mitigate cardholder defaults;
uncertainty and volatility in the performance of our clients’ businesses may make estimates of our revenues, rebates, incentives, and realization of prepaid assets less predictable;
our clients may decrease spending for value-added services; and
government intervention, including the effect of laws, regulations, and/or government investments in our clients, may have potential negative effects on our business and our relationships with our clients or otherwise alter their strategic direction away from our products.
A weakening in the economy or competition from other retailers could also force some retailers to close, resulting in exposure to potential credit losses and declines in transactions, and reduced earnings on transactions due to a potential shift to large discount merchants. Additionally, credit card issuers may reduce credit limits and become more selective in their card issuance practices.
A prolonged poor economic environment could result in significant decreases in demand by current and potential clients for our products and services and in the number and dollar amount of transactions we process, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Unfavorable resolution of tax contingencies could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows from operations.
Our tax returns and positions are subject to review and audit by federal, state, local and international taxing authorities. An unfavorable outcome to a tax audit could result in higher tax expense, thereby negatively impacting our results of operations as well as our cash flows from operations. We have established contingency reserves for known tax exposures relating to deductions, transactions and other matters involving some uncertainty as to the proper tax treatment of the item. These reserves reflect what we believe to be reasonable assumptions as to the likely final resolution of each issue if raised by a taxing authority. While we believe that the reserves are adequate to cover reasonably expected tax risks, there is no assurance that, in all instances, an issue raised by a tax authority will be finally resolved at a financial cost not in excess of any related reserve. An unfavorable resolution, therefore, could negatively impact our effective tax rate, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows in the current and/or future periods. 

18


Changes in tax laws and regulations could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows from operations.
Our operations are subject to tax by federal, state, local, and international taxing jurisdictions. Changes in tax laws or their interpretations in our significant tax jurisdictions could materially increase the amount of taxes we owe, thereby negatively impacting our results of operations as well as our cash flows from operations. For example, the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”) significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax code by, among other things, lowering corporate income tax rates, implementing a territorial-type tax system and imposing repatriation tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries. Further analysis of the Tax Act or future regulations or guidance from the Internal Revenue Service, the Securities and Exchange Commission or the Financial Accounting Standards Board could cause us to adjust current estimates in future periods, which could impact our earnings and have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flow. Furthermore, our implementation of new practices and processes designed to comply with changing tax laws and regulations could require us to make substantial changes to our business practices, allocate additional resources, and increase our costs, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our balance sheet includes significant amounts of goodwill and intangible assets. The impairment of a significant portion of these assets would negatively affect our results of operations.
Our balance sheet includes goodwill and intangible assets that represent 69% of our total assets at December 31, 2019. These assets consist primarily of goodwill and identified intangible assets associated with our acquisitions. On at least an annual basis, we assess whether there have been impairments in the carrying value of goodwill. In addition, we review intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. If the carrying value of the asset is determined to be impaired, then it is written down to fair value by a charge to operating earnings. An impairment of a significant portion of goodwill or intangible assets could have a material negative effect on our results of operations.
Existing or future leverage may harm our financial condition and results of operations.
At December 31, 2019, we had approximately $21.9 billion of debt. We and our subsidiaries may incur additional indebtedness in the future. Our indebtedness could: decrease our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, general corporate or other purposes; limit our flexibility to make acquisitions; increase our cash requirements to support the payment of interest; limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry; and increase our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic and industry conditions. Our ability to make payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness depends upon our future performance, which will be subject to general economic conditions and financial, business and other factors affecting our consolidated operations, many of which are beyond our control. In addition, if certain of our outstanding senior notes are downgraded to below investment grade, we may incur additional interest expense. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow from operations in the future to service our debt and meet our other cash requirements, we may be required, among other things: to seek additional financing in the debt or equity markets; to refinance or restructure all or a portion of our indebtedness; or to reduce or delay planned capital or operating expenditures. Such measures might not be sufficient to enable us to service our debt and meet our other cash requirements. In addition, any such financing, refinancing or sale of assets might not be available at all or on economically favorable terms.
An increase in interest rates may negatively impact our operating results and financial condition.
Certain of our borrowings, including borrowings under our revolving credit facility and term loans, are at variable rates of interest. An increase in interest rates would have a negative impact on our results of operations by causing an increase in interest expense. At December 31, 2019, we had approximately $4.8 billion in variable rate debt, which includes $4.0 billion on our term loans, $324 million drawn on our revolving credit facility and lines of credit and $500 million drawn on our accounts receivable securitization facility. Based on outstanding debt balances and interest rates at December 31, 2019, a 1% increase in variable interest rates would result in a decrease to annual pre-tax income of $48 million
Our results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
We are subject to risks related to changes in currency rates as a result of our investments in foreign operations and from revenues generated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Revenues and profit generated by such international operations will increase or decrease compared to prior periods as a result of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. From time to time, we utilize foreign currency forward contracts and other hedging instruments to mitigate the market value risks associated with foreign currency-denominated transactions and investments. These hedging strategies may not, however, eliminate all of the risks related to foreign currency translation, and we may forgo the benefits we would otherwise experience if currency exchange rates were to change in our favor. We have also issued foreign currency-denominated senior notes for which payments of interest and principal are to be made in foreign currency, and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could

19


cause the expense associated with such payments to increase. In addition, we may become subject to exchange control regulations that restrict or prohibit the conversion of our foreign revenue currencies into U.S. dollars. Any of these factors could decrease the value of revenues and earnings we derive from our international operations and have a material adverse effect on our business.
Potential tariffs or trade wars could increase the cost of our products, which could adversely impact the competitiveness of our products and our financial results.
The U.S. has imposed tariffs on certain imports from China, including on some of our hardware devices manufactured in China. If the U.S. administration imposes additional tariffs, or if additional tariffs or trade restrictions are implemented by the U.S. or other countries, our hardware devices produced in China could be impacted. Although it is too early to predict how current or future tariffs on items imported from China or elsewhere will impact our business, the cost of our products manufactured in China and imported into the U.S. or other countries could increase, which in turn could adversely affect the demand for these products and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Risks Relating to the First Data Acquisition
We may be unable to integrate the business of First Data successfully or realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisition.
The combination of two independent businesses is complex, costly and time consuming, and we will be required to devote significant management attention and resources to integrating our business practices and operations. Potential difficulties that we may encounter as part of the integration process include the following:
the inability to successfully combine the business of First Data in a manner that permits us to achieve, on a timely basis, or at all, the enhanced revenue opportunities and cost savings and other benefits anticipated to result from the acquisition;
complexities associated with managing the combined businesses, including difficulty addressing possible differences in corporate cultures and management philosophies and the challenge of integrating complex systems, technology, networks and other assets of each of the companies in a seamless manner that minimizes any adverse impact on customers, suppliers, employees and other constituencies; and
potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen increased expenses or delays associated with the acquisition.
Any of these issues could adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with customers, suppliers, employees and other constituencies or achieve the anticipated benefits of the acquisition, or could reduce our earnings or otherwise adversely affect our business and financial results.
The synergies attributable to the acquisition may vary from expectations.
We may fail to realize the anticipated benefits and synergies expected from the acquisition, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. The success of the acquisition will depend, in significant part, on our ability to successfully integrate the acquired business, grow the revenue of the combined company and realize the anticipated strategic benefits and synergies from the combination. We believe that the addition of First Data will complement our strategy by providing scale and revenue diversity, accelerate our growth strategy and enable us to have a strong global footprint. However, achieving these goals requires growth of the revenue of the combined company and realization of the targeted cost synergies expected from the acquisition. This growth and the anticipated benefits of the transaction may not be realized fully, or may take longer to realize than expected. Actual operating, technological, strategic, synergy and revenue opportunities may be less significant than expected or may take longer to achieve than anticipated. If we are not able to achieve these objectives and realize the anticipated benefits and synergies expected from the acquisition within the anticipated timing, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
We expect to incur substantial expenses related to the integration.
We expect to incur substantial expenses in connection with the integration of First Data. There are a large number of processes, policies, procedures, operations, technologies and systems that may need to be integrated, including purchasing, accounting and finance, sales, payroll, pricing and benefits. While we have assumed that a certain level of expenses will be incurred, there are many factors beyond our control that could affect the total amount or the timing of the integration expenses. Moreover, many of the expenses that will be incurred are, by their nature, difficult to estimate accurately. These expenses could, particularly in the near term, exceed the savings that we expect to achieve from the elimination of duplicative expenses and the realization of economies of scale and cost savings. These integration expenses may result in us taking significant charges against earnings following the completion of the transaction, and the amount and timing of such charges are uncertain at present.

20


Our future results will suffer if we do not effectively manage our expanded operations.
As a result of the acquisition, the size of our business has increased significantly. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to manage this expanded business, which will pose substantial challenges for management, including challenges related to the management and monitoring of new operations and associated increased costs and complexity. We may also face increased scrutiny from governmental authorities as a result of the significant increase in the size of our business. There can be no assurances that we will be successful or that we will realize the expected operating efficiencies, cost savings, revenue enhancements or other benefits currently anticipated from the acquisition.
The First Data transaction may result in a loss of customers, distributors, suppliers, vendors, landlords, joint venture partners or other business partners and may result in the termination of existing contracts.
Some of our customers, distributors, suppliers, vendors, landlords, joint venture partners and other business partners may terminate or scale back their current or prospective business relationships with us as a result of the acquisition. Some customers may not wish to source a larger percentage of their needs from a single company or may feel that we are too closely aligned with one of their competitors. If relationships with customers, distributors, suppliers, vendors, landlords, joint venture partners and other business partners are adversely affected by the transaction, or if we lose the benefits of our contracts, our business and financial performance could suffer.
New Omaha Holdings L.P. may sell a substantial amount of our common stock as certain restrictions on sales expire, and these sales could cause the price of our common stock to fall.
New Omaha Holdings L.P. (“New Omaha”) owns approximately 16% of our outstanding shares. New Omaha may sell its shares subject to certain limitations contained in the shareholder agreement between us and New Omaha. Under a registration rights agreement entered into in connection with the acquisition, we have granted New Omaha registration rights, which permit, among others, underwritten offerings. The registration rights agreement will terminate when the aggregate ownership percentage of the issued and outstanding shares of our common stock held by New Omaha and its affiliate transferees falls below 2% and such shares may be freely sold without restrictions.
New Omaha may have influence over us and its interests may conflict with other shareholders.
New Omaha owns approximately 16% of our issued and outstanding shares and is our largest shareholder. Under the shareholder agreement between us and New Omaha, New Omaha may designate a director to serve on our board of directors in accordance with the terms thereof until the aggregate ownership percentage of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock held by New Omaha and its affiliate transferees first falls below 5%. The shareholder agreement will terminate when the aggregate ownership percentage of our outstanding shares held by New Omaha and certain of its affiliates falls below 3%. Although there are various restrictions on New Omaha’s ability to take certain actions with respect to us and our shareholders (including certain standstill provisions for so long as New Omaha’s aggregate ownership percentage of the issued and outstanding shares of our common stock remains at or above 5%), New Omaha may seek to influence, and may be able to influence, us through its appointment of a director to our board of directors and its share ownership.
Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.  Properties
At December 31, 2019, we owned 20 properties and leased over 200 properties globally. These locations are used for operational, sales, management and administrative purposes. We believe these properties are suitable for our current business needs. We periodically review our requirements and may choose to acquire properties to meet the needs of our business or consolidate existing operations to enhance business integration.
Item 3.  Legal Proceedings
In the normal course of business, we or our subsidiaries are named as defendants in lawsuits in which claims are asserted against us. In the opinion of management, the liabilities, if any, which may ultimately result from such lawsuits are not expected to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements.
Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

21


INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The names of our executive officers as of February 27, 2020, together with their ages, positions and business experience are described below:
Name
Age
Title
Jeffery W. Yabuki
59
Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and Director
Frank J. Bisignano
60
President, Chief Operating Officer and Director
Guy Chiarello
60
Chief Administrative Officer
Christopher M. Foskett
62
Executive Vice President, Global Sales
Robert W. Hau
54
Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
Lynn S. McCreary
60
Chief Legal Officer and Secretary
Devin B. McGranahan
50
Executive Vice President, Senior Group President
Byron C. Vielehr
56
Executive Vice President, Senior Group President
Mr. Yabuki has been a director and Chief Executive Officer since 2005 and Chairman since July 2019. He served as president from 2005 until July 2019. Before joining Fiserv, Mr. Yabuki served as executive vice president and chief operating officer of H&R Block, Inc., a financial services firm, from 2002 to 2005. From 2001 to 2002, he served as executive vice president of H&R Block and from 1999 to 2001, he served as the president of H&R Block International. From 1987 to 1999, Mr. Yabuki held various executive positions with the American Express Company, a financial services firm, including president and chief executive officer of American Express Tax and Business Services, Inc.
Mr. Bisignano has been a director, President and Chief Operating Officer since July 2019. Mr. Bisignano joined Fiserv as part of the acquisition of First Data Corporation, where he served as chief executive officer since 2013 and chairman since 2014. From 2005 to 2013, he held various executive positions with JPMorgan Chase & Co., a global financial services firm, including co-chief operating officer, chief executive officer of mortgage banking and chief administrative officer. From 2002 to 2005, Mr. Bisignano served as chief executive officer for Citigroup’s Global Transactions Services business and a member of Citigroup’s Management Committee.
Mr. Chiarello has served as Chief Administrative Officer since July 2019. Mr. Chiarello joined Fiserv as part of the acquisition of First Data Corporation, where he served as president since 2013. From 2008 to 2013, he served as chief information officer of JPMorgan Chase & Co., a global financial services firm. From 1985 to 2008, Mr. Chiarello served in various technology roles at Morgan Stanley, a global financial services firm.
Mr. Foskett has served as Executive Vice President, Global Sales since July 2019. Mr. Foskett joined Fiserv as part of the acquisition of First Data Corporation, where he served as executive vice president, head of corporate and business development since 2015 and co-head of global financial services since 2018. He joined First Data Corporation in 2014 as head of global, strategic and national accounts. From 2011 to 2014, Mr. Foskett served as managing director, head of North American treasury services and global head of sales for treasury services at JPMorgan Chase & Co., a global financial services firm. From 2009 to 2011, he was managing director, global head of financial institutions at National Australia Bank, an Australian financial institution. From 1991 to 2008, Mr. Foskett was managing director in Citigroup’s Corporate & Investment Bank leading several global businesses. Prior to that, he was employed by Goldman Sachs & Co. and Merrill Lynch & Co. focusing on mergers and acquisitions.
Mr. Hau has served as Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer since 2016. Before joining Fiserv, Mr. Hau served as executive vice president and chief financial officer at TE Connectivity Ltd., a global technology and manufacturing company, from 2012 to 2016. From 2009 to 2012, he served as executive vice president and chief financial officer at Lennox International Inc., a provider of products and services in the heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration markets; and from 2006 to 2009, he served as vice president and chief financial officer for the aerospace business group of Honeywell International, Inc., a technology and manufacturing company. Mr. Hau joined Honeywell (initially AlliedSignal) in 1987 and served in a variety of senior financial leadership positions, including vice president and chief financial officer for the company’s aerospace electronic systems unit and for its specialty materials business group.
Ms. McCreary has served as Chief Legal Officer and Secretary since 2013. Ms. McCreary joined Fiserv in 2010 as senior vice president and deputy general counsel. Prior to joining Fiserv, Ms. McCreary was a partner with the law firm of Bryan Cave LLP from 1996 to 2010, including serving as managing partner of its San Francisco, California office from its opening in 2008 to 2010. Ms. McCreary began her career in financial services with positions at Citicorp Person-to-Person and Metropolitan Life Insurance Company’s mortgage subsidiary, Metmor Financial, Inc.

22


Mr. McGranahan has served as Executive Vice President, Senior Group President since 2018 and joined Fiserv in 2016 as group president, Billing and Payments Group. Before joining Fiserv, Mr. McGranahan served as a senior partner at McKinsey & Company, a global management consulting firm. While there, he held a variety of senior management roles, including leader of the global insurance practice from 2013 to 2016 and co-chair of the global senior partner election committee from 2013 to 2015. In addition, Mr. McGranahan served as co-leader of the North America financial services practice from 2009 to 2016. He joined McKinsey in 1992 and served in a variety of other leadership positions prior to 2009, including leader of the North American property and casualty practice and managing partner of the Pittsburgh office.
Mr. Vielehr has served as Executive Vice President, Senior Group President since July 2019. Mr. Vielehr joined Fiserv in 2013 as group president, Depository Institution Services Group, and from 2018 to 2019 served as chief administrative officer. Prior to joining Fiserv, from 2005 to 2013, Mr. Vielehr served in a succession of senior executive positions with The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation, a provider of commercial information and business insight solutions, most recently as president of international and global operations. He also previously served as president and chief operating officer of Northstar Systems International, Inc., a developer of wealth management software (now part of SEI Investments Company), from 2004 to 2005. Mr. Vielehr has more than 25 years of experience in the financial services and technology industries, including a variety of executive leadership roles at Merrill Lynch & Co. and Strong Capital Management.

23


PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Price Information
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “FISV.” At December 31, 2019, our common stock was held by 1,732 shareholders of record and by a significantly greater number of shareholders who hold shares in nominee or street name accounts with brokers. We have never paid dividends on our common stock and we do not anticipate paying dividends in the foreseeable future. For additional information regarding our expected use of capital, refer to the discussion in this report under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The table below sets forth information with respect to purchases made by or on behalf of us or any “affiliated purchaser” (as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) of shares of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2019:
Period
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
 
Average Price
Paid per Share
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs (1)
 
Maximum Number
of Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or
Programs (1)
October 1-31, 2019
 
985,000

 
$
104.00

 
985,000

 
22,994,000

November 1-30, 2019
 
630,000

 
111.08

 
630,000

 
22,364,000

December 1-31, 2019
 
567,000

 
115.39

 
567,000

 
21,797,000

Total
 
2,182,000

 

 
2,182,000

 

(1) 
On August 8, 2018, our board of directors authorized the purchase of up to 30.0 million shares of our common stock. This authorization does not expire.
In connection with the vesting of restricted stock awards, shares of common stock are delivered to the Company by employees to satisfy tax withholding obligations. The following table summarizes such purchases of common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2019:
Period
 
Total Number of 
Shares Purchased
 
Average Price
Paid per Share
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
 
Maximum Number
of Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or
Programs
October 1-31, 2019
 

(1) 
$

 

 

November 1-30, 2019
 

 

 

 

December 1-31, 2019
 
23,368

(1) 
115.63

 

 

Total
 
23,368

 
 
 

 
 
(1) 
Shares surrendered to us to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of restricted stock awards issued to employees.








24


Stock Performance Graph
The stock performance graph and related information presented below is not deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such a filing.
The following graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock for the five years ended December 31, 2019 with the S&P 500 Index and the NASDAQ US Benchmark Financial Administration Index. The graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2014 in our common stock and each index and that all dividends were reinvested. No cash dividends have been declared on our common stock. The comparisons in the graph are required by the Securities and Exchange Commission and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock.
https://cdn.kscope.io/7199dbc7b7a825e723b08e9fd738ae22-chart-a35f2d7f22eb5b93996.jpg
 
December 31,
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
Fiserv, Inc.
$
100

 
$
129

 
$
150

 
$
185

 
$
207

 
$
326

S&P 500 Index
100

 
101

 
114

 
138

 
132

 
174

NASDAQ US Benchmark Financial Administration Index
100

 
111

 
125

 
168

 
180

 
250


25


Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
The following data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes and the sections entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected historical data presented below has been affected by the First Data and other acquisitions, dispositions and transactional gains recorded by our unconsolidated affiliates, debt financing activities, foreign currency fluctuations, the tax effects related to share-based payment awards and by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted in December 2017. In addition, effective January 1, 2019, we adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), and its related amendments using the optional transition method applied to all leases. Under this transition approach, prior period amounts have not been restated. Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and its related amendments using the modified retrospective transition approach applied to all contracts. Under this transition approach, prior period amounts have not been restated. All per share amounts are presented on a split-adjusted basis to retroactively reflect the two-for-one stock split that was completed in the first quarter of 2018.
(In millions, except per share data)
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Total revenue
$
10,187

 
$
5,823

 
$
5,696

 
$
5,505

 
$
5,254

Income from continuing operations
$
914

 
$
1,187

 
$
1,232

 
$
930

 
$
712

Income from discontinued operations, net of income taxes

 

 
14

 

 

Net income
914

 
1,187

 
1,246

 
930

 
712

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
21

 

 

 

 

Net income attributable to Fiserv, Inc.
$
893

 
$
1,187

 
$
1,246

 
$
930

 
$
712

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income attributable to Fiserv, Inc. per share - basic:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
1.74

 
$
2.93

 
$
2.92

 
$
2.11

 
$
1.52

Discontinued operations

 

 
0.03

 

 

Total
$
1.74

 
$
2.93

 
$
2.95

 
$
2.11

 
$
1.52

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income attributable to Fiserv, Inc. per share - diluted:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
1.71

 
$
2.87

 
$
2.86

 
$
2.08

 
$
1.49

Discontinued operations

 

 
0.03

 

 

Total
$
1.71

 
$
2.87

 
$
2.89

 
$
2.08

 
$
1.49

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
77,539

 
$
11,262

 
$
10,289

 
$
9,743

 
$
9,340

Long-term debt (including short-term and current maturities)
21,899

 
5,959

 
4,900

 
4,562

 
4,293

Fiserv, Inc. shareholders’ equity
32,979

 
2,293

 
2,731

 
2,541

 
2,660

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is provided as a supplement to our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes to help provide an understanding of our financial condition, the changes in our financial condition and our results of operations. Our discussion is organized as follows: 
Overview. This section contains background information on our company and the services and products that we provide, acquisitions and dispositions, our enterprise priorities, and the trends affecting our industry in order to provide context for management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations.
Critical accounting policies and estimates. This section contains a discussion of the accounting policies that we believe are important to our financial condition and results of operations and that require judgment and estimates on the part of management in their application. In addition, all of our significant accounting policies, including critical accounting policies, are summarized in Note 1 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Results of operations. This section contains an analysis of our results of operations presented in the accompanying consolidated statements of income by comparing the results for the year ended December 31, 2019 to the results

26


for the year ended December 31, 2018 and by comparing the results for the year ended December 31, 2018 to the results for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Liquidity and capital resources. This section provides an analysis of our cash flows and a discussion of our outstanding debt and commitments at December 31, 2019.
Overview
Company Background
We are a leading global provider of financial services technology. We provide account processing systems; electronic payments processing products and services; internet and mobile banking systems; merchant transaction processing and acquiring, including the Clover® line of payment solutions and related applications; prepaid and payroll services; and check verification. We serve clients around the globe, including banks, credit unions, other financial institutions and merchants.
Our operations are comprised of the First Data segment, the Payments and Industry Products (“Payments”) segment and the Financial Institution Services (“Financial”) segment.
On July 29, 2019, we completed the acquisition of First Data Corporation (“First Data”), a global leader in commerce-enabling technology and solutions for merchants, financial institutions and card issuers. The First Data segment primarily provides merchant acquiring, e-commerce, mobile commerce, and other business solutions at the point-of-sale (“POS”) to businesses of all sizes and types; credit card and loan account processing, commercial payments, customer communications, plastics products and services, customer service, and other products to support issuers; and a range of network solutions and security, risk and fraud management products and services to business and financial institution clients, including U.S. debit card processing, our STAR® network, stored value commerce solutions (both closed-loop and open-loop), and our suite of security and fraud products and services. The businesses in the First Data segment are subject to a modest level of seasonality, with the first quarter experiencing the lowest level of revenue and the fourth quarter experiencing the highest level of revenue.
The Payments segment primarily provides electronic bill payment and presentment services, internet and mobile banking software and services, account-to-account transfers, person-to-person payment services, debit and credit card processing and services, payments infrastructure services, and other electronic payments software and services. Our businesses in this segment also provide card and print personalization services, and fraud and risk management products and services.
The Financial segment primarily provides financial institutions with account processing services, item processing and source capture services, loan origination and servicing products, cash management and consulting services, and other products and services that support numerous types of financial transactions. Our Payments and Financial segment operations are principally located in the U.S. The majority of our revenue within these segments is generated from recurring account- and transaction-based fees under multi-year contracts with high renewal rates. Most of the services we provide within our segments are necessary for our clients to operate their businesses and are, therefore, non-discretionary in nature.
Corporate and Other primarily consists of intercompany eliminations, amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets, unallocated corporate expenses of the combined company and other activities that are not considered when management evaluates segment performance, such as gains on sales of businesses and associated transition services. We expect to realign our business segments in the first quarter of 2020 when our new reporting structure and First Data integration plans are finalized.
On February 21, 2018, our board of directors declared a two-for-one stock split of our common stock and a proportionate increase in the number of our authorized shares of common stock. The additional shares were distributed on March 19, 2018 to shareholders of record at the close of business on March 5, 2018. Our common stock began trading at the split-adjusted price on March 20, 2018. All share and per share amounts are retroactively presented on a split-adjusted basis.
Acquisitions and Dispositions
We frequently review our portfolio to ensure we have the right set of businesses to execute on our strategy. We expect to acquire businesses when we identify: a compelling strategic need, such as a product, service or technology that helps meet client demand; an opportunity to change industry dynamics; a way to achieve business scale; or similar considerations. We expect to divest businesses that are not in line with our market, product or financial strategies.
Acquisitions
On July 29, 2019, we completed the acquisition of First Data Corporation for a total purchase price of $46.5 billion by acquiring 100% of the First Data stock that was issued and outstanding as of the date of acquisition. As a result of the

27


acquisition, First Data stockholders received 286 million shares of common stock of Fiserv, Inc., at an exchange ratio of 0.303 shares of Fiserv, Inc. for each share of First Data common stock, with cash paid in lieu of fractional shares. We also converted 15 million outstanding First Data equity awards into corresponding equity awards relating to common stock of Fiserv, Inc. in accordance with the exchange ratio. In addition, concurrent with the closing of the acquisition, we made a cash payment of $16.4 billion to repay existing First Data debt. We funded the transaction-related expenses and the repayment of First Data debt through a combination of available cash on-hand, proceeds from the issuance of senior notes and term loan and revolving credit facility borrowings. The acquisition of First Data increases our footprint as a global payments and financial technology provider by expanding the portfolio of services provided to financial institutions, corporate and merchant clients and consumers.
In October 2018, we acquired the debit card processing, ATM Managed Services, and MoneyPass® surcharge-free network of Elan Financial Services, a unit of U.S. Bancorp, for approximately $659 million including post-closing working capital adjustments, estimated contingent consideration related to earn-out provisions and future payments under a transition services agreement in excess of estimated fair value. This acquisition, included within the Payments segment, deepens our presence in debit card processing, broadens our client reach and scale and provides new solutions to enhance the value proposition for our existing debit solution clients.
During 2017, we completed four acquisitions for an aggregate purchase price of $384 million, net of acquired cash, along with earn-out provisions. In January 2017, we completed our acquisition of Online Banking Solutions, Inc. (“OBS”), a provider of cash management and digital business banking solutions that complement and enrich our existing solutions. In July 2017, we acquired the assets of PCLender, LLC (“PCLender”), a leader in internet-based mortgage software and mortgage lending technology solutions. The OBS and PCLender acquisitions are included in the Financial segment as their products are integrated across a number of our account processing solutions and enable our bank and credit union clients to better serve their commercial and mortgage customers. In August 2017, we acquired Dovetail Group Limited (“Dovetail”), a leading provider of bank payments and liquidity management solutions. In September 2017, we completed our acquisition of Monitise plc (“Monitise”), a provider of digital solutions that enables innovative digital banking experiences for leading financial institutions worldwide. The Dovetail and Monitise acquisitions are included in the Payments segment and further enable us to help financial institutions around the world transform their payments infrastructure and to expand our digital leadership, respectively.
Dispositions
On December 4, 2019, we entered into a definitive agreement to sell a 60% controlling interest of our Investment Services business, which is reported within the Payments segment. On February 18, 2020, we completed the sale of the 60% interest of this business to a group of investors for gross proceeds of $591 million, resulting in an estimated pre-tax gain, including the remeasurement of the Company’s retained interest, of approximately $430 million. Our 40% retained interest will be accounted for as an equity method investment.
In connection with the acquisition of First Data, we acquired two businesses which we intended to sell. In October 2019, we completed the sales, at acquired fair value, of these two businesses for aggregate proceeds of $133 million.
In March 2018, we sold a 55% interest of our Lending Solutions business, which was reported within the Financial segment, retaining 45% ownership interests in two joint ventures (the “Lending Joint Ventures”). In conjunction with this transaction, we entered into transition services agreements to provide, at fair value, various administration, business process outsourcing and data center related services for defined periods to the Lending Joint Ventures. We received gross sale proceeds of $419 million from the transactions. In August 2019, the Sagent Auto, LLC joint venture, formerly known as Fiserv Automotive Solutions, LLC, completed a merger with a third-party, resulting in the dilution of our ownership interest to 31% in the new combined entity, defi SOLUTIONS Group, LLC (“defi SOLUTIONS”). In addition, in January 2018, we completed the sale of the retail voucher business acquired in our 2017 acquisition of Monitise for proceeds of £37 million ($50 million), and in May 2017, we sold our Australian item processing business, which was reported within the Financial segment, for approximately $17 million.
During 2017, StoneRiver Group, L.P. (“StoneRiver”), a joint venture in which we own a 49% interest and account for under the equity method, recognized a gain on the sale of a business. Our pre-tax share of the gain was $26 million, with related tax expense of $9 million. In addition, we received cash distributions of $2 million and $45 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively, from StoneRiver, which were funded from sale transactions.
Enterprise Priorities
We continue to implement a series of strategic initiatives to move money and information in a way that moves the world. These strategic initiatives include active portfolio management of our businesses, enhancing the overall value of our existing client relationships, improving operational effectiveness, being disciplined in our allocation of capital, and differentiating our

28


products and services through innovation. During 2019, our key enterprise priorities were to (i) deliver integration value from the First Data acquisition; (ii) continue to build high-quality revenue while meeting our earnings goals; (iii) enhance client relationships with an emphasis on digital and payment solutions; and (iv) deliver innovation and integration which enables differentiated value for our clients.
Industry Trends
The global payments landscape continues to evolve, with rapidly advancing technologies and a steady expansion of digital payments, e-commerce and innovation in real-time payments infrastructure. Because of this growth, competition also continues to evolve. Business and consumer expectations continue to rise, with a focus on convenience and security. To meet these expectations, payments companies are focused on modernizing their technology, utilizing data and enhancing the customer experience.
Financial Institutions
The market for products and services offered by financial institutions continues to evolve rapidly. The traditional financial industry and other market entrants regularly introduce and implement new payment, deposit, risk management, lending and investment products, and the distinctions among the products and services traditionally offered by different types of financial institutions continue to narrow as they seek to serve the same customers. At the same time, the evolving global regulatory and cybersecurity landscape has continued to create a challenging operating environment for financial institutions. These conditions are driving heightened interest in solutions that help financial institutions win and retain customers, generate incremental revenue, comply with regulations and enhance operating efficiency. Examples of these solutions include electronic payments and delivery methods such as internet, mobile and tablet banking, sometimes referred to as “digital channels.”
The focus on digital channels by both financial institutions and their customers, as well as the growing volume and types of payment transactions in the marketplace, continues to elevate the data and transaction processing needs of financial institutions. We expect that financial institutions will continue to invest significant capital and human resources to process transactions, manage information, maintain regulatory compliance and offer innovative new services to their customers in this rapidly evolving and competitive environment. We anticipate that we will benefit over the long term from the trend of financial institutions moving from in-house technology to outsourced solutions as they seek to remain current on technology changes in an evolving marketplace. We believe that economies of scale in developing and maintaining the infrastructure, technology, products, services and networks necessary to be competitive in such an environment are essential to justify these investments, and we anticipate that demand for products that facilitate customer interaction with financial institutions, including electronic transactions through digital channels, will continue to increase, which we expect to create revenue opportunities for us.
In addition to the trends described above, the financial institutions marketplace has experienced change in composition as well. During the past 25 years, the number of financial institutions in the United States has declined at a relatively steady rate of approximately 3% per year, primarily as a result of voluntary mergers and acquisitions. Rather than reducing the overall market, these consolidations have transferred accounts among financial institutions. If a client loss occurs due to merger or acquisition, we receive a contract termination fee based on the size of the client and how early in the contract term the contract is terminated. These fees can vary from period to period. Our focus on long-term client relationships and recurring, transaction-oriented products and services has also reduced the impact that consolidation in the financial services industry has had on us. We believe that the integration of our products and services creates a compelling value proposition for our clients by providing, among other things, new sources of revenue and opportunities to reduce their costs. Furthermore, we believe that our sizable and diverse client base, combined with our position as a leading provider of non-discretionary, recurring revenue-based products and services, gives us a solid foundation for growth.
Merchants
The rapid growth in and globalization of mobile and e-commerce, driven by consumers’ desire for simpler, more efficient shopping experiences, has created an opportunity for merchants to reach consumers in high-growth online and mobile settings, which often requires a merchant acquiring provider to enable and optimize the acceptance of payments. Merchants are demanding simpler, integrated and modern POS systems to help manage their everyday business operations. When combined with the ever-increasing ways a consumer can pay for goods and services, merchants have sought modern POS systems to streamline this complexity. Furthermore, merchants can now search, discover, compare, purchase and even install a new POS system through direct, digital-only experiences. This direct, digital-only channel is quickly becoming a source of new merchant acquisition opportunities, especially with respect to smaller merchants.
Additionally, there are numerous software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) solutions in the industry, many of which have chosen to integrate merchant acquiring within their software in a way to further monetize their client relationships. SaaS solutions that

29


integrate payments are often referred to as Independent Software Vendors, or ISVs, and we believe there are thousands of these potential distribution partnership opportunities available to us.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, which require management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses. We continually evaluate the accounting policies and estimates that we use to prepare our consolidated financial statements, including for recently adopted accounting pronouncements, and base our estimates on historical experience and assumptions that we believe are reasonable in light of current circumstances. Actual amounts and results could differ materially from these estimates.
Acquisitions
From time to time, we make strategic acquisitions that may have a material impact on our consolidated results of operations or financial position. We allocate the purchase price of acquired businesses to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the transaction at their estimated fair values. The estimates used to determine the fair value of long-lived assets, such as intangible assets, can be complex and require significant judgments. We use information available to us to make fair value determinations and engage independent valuation specialists, when necessary, to assist in the fair value determination of significant acquired long-lived assets. The determination of fair value requires estimates about discount rates, growth and retention rates, royalty rates, expected future cash flows and other future events that are judgmental in nature. While we use our best estimates and assumptions as a part of the purchase price allocation process, our estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to our consolidated statements of income. We are also required to estimate the useful lives of intangible assets to determine the amount of acquisition-related intangible asset amortization expense to record in future periods. We periodically review the estimated useful lives assigned to our intangible assets to determine whether such estimated useful lives continue to be appropriate.
Goodwill and Acquired Intangible Assets
We review the carrying value of goodwill for impairment annually, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Goodwill is tested for impairment at a reporting unit level, determined to be at an operating segment level or one level below. When reviewing goodwill for impairment, we consider the amount of excess fair value over the carrying value of each reporting unit, the period of time since a reporting unit’s last quantitative test, the extent a reorganization or disposition changes the composition of one or more of our reporting units, and other factors to determine whether or not to first perform a qualitative test. When performing a qualitative test, we assess numerous factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting units are less than their respective carrying values. Examples of qualitative factors that we assess include our share price, our financial performance, market and competitive factors in our industry, and other events specific to our reporting units. If we conclude that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we perform a quantitative impairment test.
The quantitative impairment test compares the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value, and recognizes an impairment loss for the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value, without exceeding the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. We determine the fair value of a reporting unit based primarily on the present value of estimated future cash flows. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit involves judgment and the use of significant estimates and assumptions, which include assumptions regarding the revenue growth rates and operating margins used to calculate estimated future cash flows, risk-adjusted discount rates and future economic and market conditions.
Our most recent impairment assessment of our reporting units in the fourth quarter of 2019 determined that our goodwill was not impaired as the estimated fair values of the respective reporting units substantially exceeded the carrying values except for the reporting units related to the acquisition of First Data. An assessment of qualitative factors, including the proximity of the acquisition date to the year end reporting period, did not identify indicators of impairment in relation to the First Data goodwill. Goodwill recorded as a result of our acquisition of First Data is based on preliminary estimates and assumptions using information available at the reporting date, and therefore the potential for measurement period adjustments exists based on our continuing review of matters related to the acquisition. We have no accumulated goodwill impairment through December 31, 2019. See Note 8 for additional information.
We review acquired intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability is assessed by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to the undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. Measurement of any impairment loss is based on

30


estimated fair value. Given the significance of our goodwill and intangible asset balances, an adverse change in fair value could result in an impairment charge, which could be material to our consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
We generate revenue from the delivery of processing, service and product solutions. Revenue is measured based on consideration specified in a contract with a customer, and excludes any amounts collected on behalf of third parties. We recognize revenue when we satisfy a performance obligation by transferring control over a product or service to a customer which may be at a point in time or over time. As a practical expedient, we do not adjust the transaction price for the effects of a significant financing component if, at contract inception, the period between customer payment and the transfer of goods or services is expected to be one year or less. Contracts with customers are evaluated on a contract-by-contract basis as contracts may include multiple types of goods and services as described below.
Processing and Services
Processing and services revenue is generated from account- and transaction-based fees for data processing, transaction processing, merchant acquiring and e-commerce, electronic billing and payment services, electronic funds transfer and debit processing services; consulting and professional services; and software maintenance for ongoing client support.
We recognize processing and services revenues in the period in which the specific service is performed unless they are not deemed distinct from other goods or services in which revenue would then be recognized as control is transferred of the combined goods and services. Our arrangements for processing and services typically consist of an obligation to provide specific services to our customers on a when and if needed basis (a stand-ready obligation) and revenue is recognized from the satisfaction of the performance obligations in the amount billable to the customer. These services are typically provided under a fixed or declining (tier-based) price per unit based on volume of service; however, pricing for services may also be based on minimum monthly usage fees. Fees for our processing and services arrangements are typically billed and paid on a monthly basis.
Product
Product revenue is generated from integrated print and card production sales, as well as software license sales. For software license agreements that are distinct, we recognize software license revenue upon delivery, assuming a contract is deemed to exist. Revenue for arrangements with customers that include significant customization, modification or production of software such that the software is not distinct is typically recognized over time based upon efforts expended, such as labor hours, to measure progress towards completion. For arrangements involving hosted licensed software for the customer, a software element is considered present to the extent the customer has the contractual right to take possession of the software at any time during the hosting period without significant penalty and it is feasible for the customer to either operate the software on their own hardware or contract with another vendor to host the software.
We also sell or lease hardware (POS devices) and other peripherals as part of our contracts with customers. Hardware typically consists of terminals or Clover® devices. We do not manufacture hardware, rather we purchase hardware from third-party vendors and hold such hardware in inventory until purchased by a customer. We account for sales of hardware as a separate performance obligation and recognize the revenue at its standalone selling price when the customer obtains control of the hardware.
Significant Judgments
We use the following methods, inputs, and assumptions in determining amounts of revenue to recognize. For multi-element arrangements, we account for individual goods or services as a separate performance obligation if they are distinct, the good or service is separately identifiable from other items in the arrangement, and if a customer can benefit from it on its own or with other resources that are readily available to the customer. If these criteria are not met, the promised goods or services are accounted for as a combined performance obligation. Determining whether goods or services are distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately may require significant judgment.
Technology or service components from third parties are frequently embedded in or combined with our applications or service offerings. Whether we recognize revenue based on the gross amount billed to a customer or the net amount retained involves judgment that depends on the relevant facts and circumstances including the level of contractual responsibilities and obligations for delivering solutions to end customers.
The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which we will be entitled in exchange for transferring products or services to the customer. We include any fixed charges within our contracts as part of the total transaction price. To the extent that variable consideration is not constrained, we include an estimate of the variable amount, as appropriate, within

31


the total transaction price and update our assumptions over the duration of the contract. We may constrain the estimated transaction price in the event of a high degree of uncertainty as to the final consideration amount owed because of an extended length of time over which the fees may be adjusted. The transaction price (including any discounts) is allocated between distinct goods and services in a multi-element arrangement based on their relative standalone selling prices. For items that are not sold separately, we estimate the standalone selling prices using available information such as market conditions and internally approved pricing guidelines. Significant judgment may be required to determine standalone selling prices for each performance obligation and whether it depicts the amount we expect to receive in exchange for the related good or service.
Contract modifications occur when we and our customers agree to modify existing customer contracts to change the scope or price (or both) of the contract or when a customer terminates some, or all, of the existing services provided by us. When a contract modification occurs, it requires us to exercise judgment to determine if the modification should be accounted for as (i) a separate contract, (ii) the termination of the original contract and creation of a new contract, or (iii) a cumulative catch up adjustment to the original contract. Further, contract modifications require the identification and evaluation of the performance obligations of the modified contract, including the allocation of revenue to the remaining performance obligations and the period of recognition for each identified performance obligation.
Additional information about our revenue recognition policies is included within Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements.
Income Taxes
The determination of our provision for income taxes requires management’s judgment in the use of estimates and the interpretation and application of complex tax laws, including our increased global footprint. Judgment is also required in assessing the timing and amounts of deductible and taxable items. We establish a liability for known tax exposures relating to deductions, transactions, and other matters involving some uncertainty as to the proper tax treatment of the item. In establishing a liability for known tax exposures, assumptions are made in determining whether, and the extent to which, a tax position will be sustained. A tax position is recognized only when it is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the relevant taxing authority, based on its technical merits. The amount of tax benefit recognized reflects the largest benefit that we believe is more likely than not to be realized upon ultimate settlement. As new information becomes available, we evaluate our tax positions and adjust our liability for known tax exposures as appropriate.
We, primarily through our First Data acquisition, maintain net operating loss carryforwards in various taxing jurisdictions, resulting in the establishment of deferred tax assets. We establish a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets when, based upon the weight of all available evidence, we believe it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. We believe that a significant portion of the deferred tax assets will be realized because of the existence of sufficient taxable income within the carryforward period available under the tax law; however, we have established valuation allowances for those deferred tax assets that in our judgment will not be realized. In making this determination, we have considered the relative impact of all of the available positive and negative evidence regarding future sources of taxable income and available tax planning strategies. However, there could be a material impact to our effective tax rate if there is a significant change in our judgment. To the extent our judgment changes, the valuation allowances are then adjusted, generally through the provision for income taxes, in the period in which this determination is made.
Results of Operations
Components of Revenue and Expenses
The following summary describes the components of revenue and expenses as presented in our consolidated statements of income.
Processing and Services
Processing and services revenue, which in 2019 represented 84% of our total revenue, is primarily generated from account- and transaction-based fees under multi-year contracts. Processing and services revenue is most reflective of our business performance as a significant amount of our total operating profit is generated by these services. Cost of processing and services includes costs directly associated with providing services to clients and includes the following: personnel; equipment and data communication; infrastructure costs, including costs to maintain software applications; client support; certain depreciation and amortization; and other operating expenses.

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Product
Product revenue, which in 2019 represented 16% of our total revenue, is primarily derived from integrated print and card production sales, as well as software license sales and hardware (POS devices) sales. Cost of product includes costs directly associated with the products sold and includes the following: costs of materials and software development; personnel; infrastructure costs; certain depreciation and amortization; and other costs directly associated with product revenue.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses primarily consist of: salaries, wages, commissions and related expenses paid to sales personnel, administrative employees and management; advertising and promotional costs; certain depreciation and amortization; and other selling and administrative expenses.

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Financial Results
The following table presents certain amounts included in our consolidated statements of income, the relative percentage that those amounts represent to revenue and the change in those amounts from year-to-year. This information should be read together with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The financial results presented below have been affected by the First Data and other acquisitions, dispositions, transactional gains recorded by our unconsolidated affiliates, debt financing activities, foreign currency fluctuations, and by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted in December 2017. In addition, effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and its related amendments using the modified retrospective transition approach applied to all contracts. Under this transition approach, prior period amounts have not been restated.
(In millions)
 
 
Percentage of Revenue (1)
 
Increase (Decrease)
Year ended December 31,
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2019 vs. 2018
 
2018 vs. 2017
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Processing and services
$
8,573

 
$
4,975

 
$
4,833

 
84.2
 %
 
85.4
 %
 
84.8
 %
 
$
3,598

 
72
 %
 
$
142

 
3
 %
Product
1,614

 
848

 
863

 
15.8
 %
 
14.6
 %
 
15.2
 %
 
766

 
90
 %
 
(15
)
 
(2
)%
Total revenue
10,187

 
5,823

 
5,696

 
100.0
 %
 
100.0
 %
 
100.0
 %
 
4,364

 
75
 %
 
127

 
2
 %
Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of processing and services
4,016

 
2,324

 
2,291

 
46.8
 %
 
46.7
 %
 
47.4
 %
 
1,692

 
73
 %
 
33

 
1
 %
Cost of product
1,293

 
745

 
733

 
80.1
 %
 
87.9
 %
 
84.9
 %
 
548

 
74
 %
 
12

 
2
 %
Sub-total
5,309

 
3,069

 
3,024

 
52.1
 %
 
52.7
 %
 
53.1
 %
 
2,240

 
73
 %
 
45

 
1
 %
Selling, general and administrative
3,284

 
1,228

 
1,150

 
32.2
 %
 
21.1
 %
 
20.2
 %
 
2,056

 
167
 %
 
78

 
7
 %
Gain on sale of businesses
(15
)
 
(227
)
 
(10
)
 
(0.1
)%
 
(3.9
)%
 
(0.2
)%
 
(212
)
 
n/m

 
217

 
n/m

Total expenses
8,578

 
4,070

 
4,164

 
84.2
 %
 
69.9
 %
 
73.1
 %
 
4,508

 
111
 %
 
(94
)
 
(2
)%
Operating income
1,609

 
1,753

 
1,532

 
15.8
 %
 
30.1
 %
 
26.9
 %
 
(144
)
 
(8
)%
 
221

 
14
 %
Interest expense, net
(473
)
 
(189
)
 
(175
)
 
(4.6
)%
 
(3.2
)%
 
(3.1
)%
 
284

 
150
 %
 
14

 
8
 %
Debt financing activities
(47
)
 
(14
)
 

 
(0.5
)%
 
(0.2
)%
 
 %
 
33

 
236
 %
 
14

 
n/m

Other (expense) income
(6
)
 
5

 
1

 
(0.1
)%
 
0.1
 %
 
 %
 
(11
)
 
n/m

 
4

 
n/m

Income from continuing operations before income taxes and income from investments in unconsolidated affiliates
1,083

 
1,555

 
1,358

 
10.6
 %
 
26.7
 %
 
23.8
 %
 
(472
)
 
(30
)%
 
197

 
15
 %
Income tax provision
(198
)
 
(378
)
 
(158
)
 
(1.9
)%
 
(6.5
)%
 
(2.8
)%
 
(180
)
 
(48
)%
 
220

 
139
 %
Income from investments in unconsolidated affiliates
29

 
10

 
32

 
0.3
 %
 
0.2
 %
 
0.6
 %
 
19

 
190
 %
 
(22
)
 
(69
)%
Income from continuing operations
914

 
1,187

 
1,232

 
9.0
 %
 
20.4
 %
 
21.6
 %
 
$
(273
)
 
(23
)%
 
$
(45
)
 
(4
)%
Income from discontinued operations, net of income taxes

 

 
14

 
 %
 
 %
 
0.2
 %
 

 
 %
 
(14
)
 
n/m

Net income
914

 
1,187

 
1,246

 
9.0
 %
 
20.4
 %
 
21.9
 %
 
$
(273
)
 
(23
)%
 
$
(59
)
 
(5
)%
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
21

 

 

 
0.2
 %
 
 %
 
 %
 
21

 
n/m

 

 
 %
Net income attributable to Fiserv, Inc.
$
893

 
$
1,187

 
$
1,246

 
8.8
 %
 
20.4
 %
 
21.9
 %
 
$
(294
)
 
(25
)%
 
$
(59
)
 
(5
)%
(1) 
Percentage of revenue is calculated as the relevant revenue, expense, income or loss amount divided by total revenue, except for cost of processing and services and cost of product amounts, which are divided by the related component of revenue.

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(In millions)
 
Year ended December 31,
First Data
 
Payments
 
Financial
 
Corporate
and Other
 
Total
Total revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2019
$
4,078

 
 
$
3,744

 
 
$
2,407

 
 
$
(42
)
 
 
$
10,187

 
2018

 
 
3,467

 
 
2,395

 
 
(39
)
 
 
5,823

 
2017

 
 
3,234

 
 
2,530

 
 
(68
)
 
 
5,696

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue growth: